The rulers of Japan have been its Emperors, whether effectively or nominally, for its entire recorded history. These include the ancient legendary emperors, the attested but undated emperors of the Yamato period (early fifth to early 6th centuries), and the clearly dated emperors of 539 to the present. Political power was held in various eras by regents and shoguns, and since 1946 has been exercised exclusively by the Prime Minister as leader of a representative government.
The following is a chronological list of rulers of Monaco. Most belong to the House of Grimaldi; exceptions, which consist primarily of the principality's administrators under periods of foreign occupation, are noted.
This is a List of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.
The Rulers of Estonia is a list of the rulers of Estonia throughout the history. Starting with the ancient Counties and Parishes each headed by Seniores and Meliores (Elders) as noted by Henry of Livonia. The highest political institutions in Estonia during ancient times were Councils of Elders. The administrative jurisdiction of the parish and county elders were limited, the counties themselves remained autonomous until the German and Danish conquest in the 13th century.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949 Bavaria is a democratic state in Federal Republic of Germany.
Dukes of Bohemia Přemyslid dynasty Image Name Date Notes Bořivoj I. c.870–888/9 Spytihněv I. 894–915 Son of Bořivoj I. Vratislav I. (Vratislaus) 915–921 Brother of Spytihněv I. Václav I. Svatý(Wenceslaus) 921–935 Son of Vratislav I; known as St. Wenceslaus ("Good King Wenceslas" for English speaking people), the patron saint of the Czech lands. Boleslav I. Ukrutný(Boleslaus I the Cruel) 935–972 Brother of Václav I. Boleslav II. Pobožný(Boleslaus II the Pious) 972–999 Son of Boleslav I.
The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1859 when Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia. See also: Governors of the Duchy of Milan List of mayors of Milan List of consorts of Milan
Hesse is a region of west-central Germany. Originally the western part of the Landgraviate of Thuringia, in the mid 13th century it was inherited by the younger son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and became a distinct political entity. From the late 16th century it was generally divided into several branches, the most important of which were those of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Hesse-Darmstadt.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.
The following is a list of rulers and heads of state of Ethiopia since the Zagwe dynasty. Kings of Axum and Dʿmt are listed separately due to numerous gaps and large flexibility in chronology. (Names in italics indicate rulers who were usurpers or not widely recognized)
This is a partial list of rulers in Morocco, including the historical precursors to the modern state. The common and formal titles of these rulers has varied, depending on the time period. Since 1957 the designation King has been used. Before that the office was generally known as that of the Sultan.
The following is a list of the twenty-five Rulers of Númenor, an island realm in J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional universe: After Ar-Pharazôn, who perished in the Downfall of Númenor, the direct line of Kings was broken. Númenórean rule continued in Middle-earth through the Dúnedain kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor established by Elendil, son of the last Lord of Andúnië, senior surviving descendant of Elros through Silmariën the daughter of Tar-Elendil, and his heirs.