A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. In split professions, the other types of lawyers are mainly solicitors. Solicitors have more direct contact with the clients, whereas barristers often only become involved in a case once advocacy before a court is needed by the client. Barristers are also engaged by solicitors to provide specialist advice on points of law.
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person licensed to practice law. " Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political and social authority, and deliver justice.
A notary public (or notary or public notary) is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business.
The police are people empowered to enforce the law, protect property and reduce civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes via medieval French police, from Latin politia ("civil administration"), from ancient Greek πόλις ("city").
Conservatorship is a legal concept in the United States of America, where an entity or organization is subjected to the legal control of an external entity or organization, known as a conservator. Conservatorship is established either by court order (with regards to individuals) or via a statutory or regulatory authority (with regards to organizations).
A judge, or arbiter of justice, is a lead who presides over a court of law, either alone or as part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is like an umpire in a game and conducts the trial impartially and in an open court.
A jurist or jurisconsult is a professional who studies, develops, applies, or otherwise deals with the law. The term is widely used in American English, but in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries it has only historical and specialist usage. In most of Continental Europe any person who possesses a degree in law is called a jurist.
In most common law jurisdictions, the attorney general, or attorney-general, is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions he or she may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.
An advocate is someone who speaks on behalf of another person, especially in a legal context. It is used primarily in reference to the system of Scots law, Anglo-Dutch law, Scandinavian and Israeli law, and also to refer to the fused legal professions in the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Implicit in the concept is the notion that the represented lacks the knowledge, skill, ability, or standing to speak for themselves.
A sheriff is in principle a legal official with responsibility for a county. In practice, the specific combination of legal, political, and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country. The word "sheriff" is a contraction of the term "shire reeve". The term, from the Old English scīrgerefa, designated a royal official responsible for keeping the peace (a "reeve") throughout a shire or county on behalf of the king.
Solicitors are lawyers who traditionally deal with any legal matter apart from conducting proceedings in courts (advocacy), with some exceptions. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the legal profession is split between solicitors and barristers, and a lawyer will usually only hold one title. However, in Canada, New Zealand and some Australian states, the legal profession is now for practical purposes "fused", allowing lawyers to hold the title of "barrister and solicitor" and practice as both.
A coroner or forensics examiner is an official chiefly responsible for investigating deaths, particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances, and determining the cause of death. Depending on the jurisdiction, the coroner may adjudge the cause him/herself, or act as the presiding officer of a special court (a "coroner's jury").
An ombudsman is a person who acts as a trusted intermediary between an organization and some internal or external constituency while representing the broad scope of constituent interests. Usually appointed by the organization, but sometimes elected by the constituency, the ombudsman may, for example, investigate constituent complaints relating to the organization and attempt to resolve them, usually through recommendations (binding or not) or mediation.
Paralegal is a term used in most jurisdictions to describe a non-lawyer who assists lawyers in their legal work. This is true in the United States and many other countries. However, in Ontario, Canada, paralegals are licensed by the Law Society of Upper Canada, giving paralegals an independent status in this jurisdiction. Paralegals are not the same in every country.
A criminologist is often defined as someone who studies crime, criminal behavior, types of crime, and social, cultural and media reactions to crime. The term criminologist generally to someone who does scholarly, scientific and professional study concerning the aetiology, prevention, control, and treatment of crime and delinquency, measurement of crime, law enforcement, judicial, and correctional systems. It may also refer to the study of victims of crime.
A bounty hunter captures fugitives for a monetary reward. Other names, mainly used in the United States, include, bail enforcement agent, fugitive recovery agent, and bail fugitive investigator. Other countries do not have bounty hunters; they use standard law enforcement agencies to recover suspects. Bounty hunting, and bounty hunters, are legal in only two nations: the United States and the Republic of the Philippines.
Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", and originally meant "stable keeper". As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for the most elevated offices.
In common parlance, a devil's advocate is someone who takes a position he or she does not agree with for the sake of argument. This process can also be used to test the quality of the original argument and identify weaknesses in its structure.
A pro se clerk is a clerk of the court, employed by the court and found in the courthouse. This clerk assists people appearing pro se to participate in legal actions by providing forms which need to be filled out and explaining some basic rules. Pro se clerks are not always lawyers themselves, and so are usually prohibited from providing legal or strategic advice.
A court reporter, stenotype reporter, voice writer, digital reporter or stenomask writer is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, typically using machine shorthand or a voice silencer and digital recorder to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings. There are two major methods of live person court reporting, machine shorthand and voice writing.
A magistrate is a judicial officer; in ancient Rome, the word magistratus denoted one of the highest government officers with judicial and executive powers. Today, in common law systems, a magistrate has limited law enforcement and administration authority. In civil law systems, a magistrate might be a judge in a superior court; the magistrate's court might have jurisdiction over civil cases and criminal cases.