Mohammed Zahir Shah (15 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 until he was ousted by a coup in 1973. Following his return from exile he was given the title 'Father of the Nation' in 2002 which he held until his death.
Nicholas II (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Czar of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.
Haile Selassie I (23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975), born Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. The heir to a dynasty that traced its origins to the 13th century, and from there by tradition back to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Haile Selassie is a defining figure in both Ethiopian and African history. At the League of Nations in 1936, the Emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy against his people.
Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925–17 January 1961) was a Congolese independence leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.
Louis XVI of France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. He was the only king of France to be executed.
Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (June 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was a physician and the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas. Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. As a member of the Socialist Party, he was a senator, deputy and cabinet minister. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 elections. In 1970, he won the presidency in a close three-way race.
Farouk I of Egypt (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965), was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. His full title was "His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, of Kordofan, and of Darfur. " He was overthrown in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as King Fuad II.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He largely dominated the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution in 1794.
Charles X (9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. A younger brother to Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. His rule of almost six years came to an end in 1830 due to the July Revolution, which ignored his attempts to keep the crown in the senior branch of the House of Bourbon and instead elected Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans as King of the French.
Pedro II (2 December, 1825 – 5 December, 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous" was the second and last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned for 58 years. His name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. When anglicised, his name would be Peter II, full name Peter of Alcantara John Charles Leopold Salvador Vivian Francis Xavier of Paula Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga.
Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 – April 5, 1977) was the 16th President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa (22 February 1921 – 3 November 1996, also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa and Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa) was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from 1 January 1966 and the Emperor of the Central African Empire from 4 December 1976 until he was overthrown on 20 September 1979.
Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc) (born July 3, 1951) succeeded his father, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier as the ruler of Haiti from his father's death in 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986.
Fyodor II Borisovich Godunov of Russia (1589 - 10 June/20 June 1605) was a tsar of Russia (1605) during the Time of Troubles. He was born in Moscow, the son and successor to Boris Godunov. His mother Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya was one of the daughters of Malyuta Skuratov, the infamous favourite of Ivan the Terrible.
Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 – March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960–1965) of the Republic of the Congo, today called Democratic Republic of the Congo. He was educated by Catholic missionaries at a student seminary from 1928-1936 at Mbata Kiela. He studied theology and philosophy at the Kabwe seminary until 1939, before becoming a teacher. Kasa-Vubu was a leader of the ABAKO (Alliance des Bakongo) Movement of his own lower Congo River Bakongo people.
Former Captain and President Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (December 21, 1949 – October 15, 1987) was the President and leader of Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta) from 1983 to 1987. In addition to being noted for his personal charisma and praised for promoting health and women's rights, he also antagonised many vested interests in the country.
Sami Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel, better known as Süleyman Demirel (born 1 November 1924), is a Turkish politician who served as prime minister seven times and was the ninth President of Turkey. When he won the 1965 general elections in Turkey, he became the second democratically elected leader in Turkish history, after Adnan Menderes who had won elections three times in the 50s, but was hanged after a military coup d'état in 1960.
Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) was a Paraguayan military officer and dictator from 1954 to 1989.
François Tombalbaye, also called Ngarta Tombalbaye (June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), was a teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad. He was born in the southern region of the country in the Moyen-Chari Prefecture near the city of Koumara and was of the Sara ethnic group, the prominent ethnicity in the five southern prefectures.
Faisal II (May 2, 1935 – July 14, 1958) was the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq's last King. He reigned from 4 April 1939 until July 1958, when he was killed during the "14 July Revolution" together with several members of his family. His regicide marked the end of the thirty-seven year old Hashemite monarchy in Iraq, which became a republic.
Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina, after serving in several government positions, including the Secretary of Labor and the Vice Presidency. He was overthrown in a military coup in 1955. He returned to power in 1973 and served for nine months, until his death in 1974 when he was succeeded by his third wife, Isabel Martínez.