Alexander I of Russia (23 December 1777 – 1 December 1825), also known as Alexander the Blessed served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania. He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and Maria Feodorovna, daughter of the Duke of Württemberg. Alexander was the eldest of four brothers.
Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (29 April 1818, Moscow – 13 March 1881, Saint Petersburg), also known as Alexander the Liberator was the Emperor, or Czar, of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the Grand Duke of Finland and the King of Poland.
Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Unlike his father, liberal-leaning Alexander II, Alexander III is considered by historians to have been a repressive and reactionary tsar.
Afonso XII de Espanha, Rei de Espanha, foi filho de Isabel II de Espanha e de Francisco de Assis de Bourbon, o primogénito do duque de Cádiz. Os seus pais foram forçados, pela revolução de 1868, a fugir para Paris, e Afonso foi enviado para o Theresianum de Viena para continuar os estudos. Subiu ao trono após a restauração da monarquia, em 29 de Dezembro de 1874.
Afonso XIII, foi rei de Espanha entre 1886 e 1931. Alfonso foi o filho póstumo do rei Afonso XII de Espanha e de Maria Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena. Foi proclamado rei na altura do seu nascimento e a sua mãe foi a regente durante a sua menoridade. Em 1902, ao completar 16 anos, foi declarado maior de idade e assumiu as funções de chefe de estado.
Alfonso the Magnanimous was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), and Sicily and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416 and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.
Abdülaziz I or Abd Al-Aziz, His Imperial Majesty (February 9/18 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861. Born at the Eyüp Palace, Istanbul, on 9/18 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West.
Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (5 September 1771 – 30 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the son of emperor Leopold II and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army. He was considered one of Napoleon's most formidable opponents. He began his career fighting the revolutionary armies of France.
Anthony (b. Dresden, 27 December 1755 – d. Dresden, 6 June 1836), also known by his German name Anton, was a King of Saxony (1827-1836) from the House of Wettin. He became known as Anton der Gütige, . He was the fifth but third surviving son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, and Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria.
Albert III was a Duke of Saxony. He was nicknamed Albert the Bold or Albert the Courageous and founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. Albert was born in Grimma as the third and youngest son (but fifth child in order of birth) of Frederick II the Gentle, Elector of Saxony, and Margarete of Austria, sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. Later, he was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. 29 April/1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of the nineteenth century. Born in Ireland to a prominent Ascendancy family, he was commissioned an ensign in the British Army in 1787.
François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan (18 October 1663 – 21 April 1736), was one of the most prominent and successful military commanders in modern European history. Born in Paris to aristocratic Savoyard parents, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV. He was initially prepared for a career in the church, but by the age of 19 he had determined on a military career.
Hirohito, also known as The Shōwa Emperor, (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, he is now referred to exclusively by his posthumous name Emperor Shōwa in Japan. The word Shōwa is the name of the era that corresponded with the Emperor's reign, and was made the Emperor's own name upon his death.
Albert (Dresden, 23 April 1828 – Schloss Sibyllenort, 19 June 1902) was a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Prince John, (who succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus II on the Saxon throne as King John in 1854) by his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria. Albert had a successful military career leading Saxon troops which participated in the First War of Schleswig, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
Frederick or Friedrich of Habsburg (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) was Duke of Austria as Frederick V since 1424, successor of Albert II as German King as Frederick IV since 1440, and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III since 1452. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian I in 1493 after ten years of joint rule.
Francis II (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I of Austria (Franz I. ), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history.
Frederick Augustus II was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony --younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony—by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, Princess of Parma.
Henry VII was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry won the throne when his army defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was also Lord of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy.
Nicholas II (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Czar of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.
Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898) was a Prussian/German statesman of the late 19th century, and a dominant figure in world affairs. As Ministerpräsident, or Prime Minister, of Prussia from 1862–1890, he oversaw the unification of Germany. In 1867 he became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. He designed the German Empire in 1871, becoming its first Chancellor and dominating its affairs until his dismissal in 1890.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612), Holy Roman Emperor as Rudolf II (1576-1612), King of Hungary and Croatia, as Rudolf (1572-1608), King of Bohemia as Rudolf II (1575-1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria as Rudolf V (1576-1608). He was a member of the Habsburg family.
William I Frederick, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau (The Hague, 24 August 1772 - Berlin, 12 December 1843), was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. In Germany he was for some while ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 till 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806 and from 1813 till 1815.