Alexander I of Russia (23 December 1777 – 1 December 1825), also known as Alexander the Blessed served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania. He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and Maria Feodorovna, daughter of the Duke of Württemberg. Alexander was the eldest of four brothers.
Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (29 April 1818, Moscow – 13 March 1881, Saint Petersburg), also known as Alexander the Liberator was the Emperor, or Czar, of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the Grand Duke of Finland and the King of Poland.
Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Unlike his father, liberal-leaning Alexander II, Alexander III is considered by historians to have been a repressive and reactionary tsar.
Afonso V (originally Affonso) (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was the twelfth King of Portugal and the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa. He was born in Sintra, the eldest son of King Edward of Portugal by his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon. Afonso V was only six years old when he succeeded his father in 1438. During his minority, Afonso V was placed under the regency of his mother, according to a late will of his father.
Afonso XII de Espanha, Rei de Espanha, foi filho de Isabel II de Espanha e de Francisco de Assis de Bourbon, o primogénito do duque de Cádiz. Os seus pais foram forçados, pela revolução de 1868, a fugir para Paris, e Afonso foi enviado para o Theresianum de Viena para continuar os estudos. Subiu ao trono após a restauração da monarquia, em 29 de Dezembro de 1874.
Afonso XIII, foi rei de Espanha entre 1886 e 1931. Alfonso foi o filho póstumo do rei Afonso XII de Espanha e de Maria Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena. Foi proclamado rei na altura do seu nascimento e a sua mãe foi a regente durante a sua menoridade. Em 1902, ao completar 16 anos, foi declarado maior de idade e assumiu as funções de chefe de estado.
Alfonso the Magnanimous was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), and Sicily and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416 and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.
Abdülaziz I or Abd Al-Aziz, His Imperial Majesty (February 9/18 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861. Born at the Eyüp Palace, Istanbul, on 9/18 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), often referred to as "Monty", was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II, and troops under his command played a major role in the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. He served in government for three decades, twice as Prime Minister. A teenage convert to Anglicanism, he was nonetheless the country's first and thus far only Prime Minister of Jewish heritage. He played an instrumental role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party after the Corn Laws schism of 1846.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British Labour politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, and as the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Saint Charles I, King and Martyr (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was the second son of James VI of Scots and I of England. He was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles believed was divinely ordained.
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. 29 April/1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of the nineteenth century. Born in Ireland to a prominent Ascendancy family, he was commissioned an ensign in the British Army in 1787.
Hirohito, also known as The Shōwa Emperor, (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, he is now referred to exclusively by his posthumous name Emperor Shōwa in Japan. The word Shōwa is the name of the era that corresponded with the Emperor's reign, and was made the Emperor's own name upon his death.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS, né Prince Louis of Battenberg (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman of German descent, and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Albert (Dresden, 23 April 1828 – Schloss Sibyllenort, 19 June 1902) was a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Prince John, (who succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus II on the Saxon throne as King John in 1854) by his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria. Albert had a successful military career leading Saxon troops which participated in the First War of Schleswig, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
Frederick or Friedrich of Habsburg (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) was Duke of Austria as Frederick V since 1424, successor of Albert II as German King as Frederick IV since 1440, and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III since 1452. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian I in 1493 after ten years of joint rule.
Francis II (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I of Austria (Franz I. ), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history.
Frederick Augustus II was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony --younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony—by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, Princess of Parma.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S. ), widely known in English by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and variously in historical writings sometimes as simply just Gustavus, or Gustavus the Great, or Gustav Adolf the Great,, was founder of the Swedish Empire (or Stormaktstiden – "the era of great power") at the beginning of what is widely regarded as the Golden Age of Sweden.
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen KG KT FRS PC (28 January 1784 – 14 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a Scottish politician, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1852 until 1855.
Henry the Navigator was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations. Henry the Navigator was the third child of King John I of Portugal, the founder of the Aviz dynasty, and of Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was also Lord of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy.