Italo Calvino (15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. His best known works include the Our Ancestors trilogy (1952-1959), the Cosmicomics collection of short stories (1965), and the novels Invisible Cities (1972) and If on a winter's night a traveler (1979). Lionised in Britain and America, he was the most-translated contemporary Italian writer at the time of his death, and a noted contender for the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Primo Michele Levi (31 July 1919–11 April 1987) was a Jewish-Italian chemist and writer. He is best known for If This Is a Man, published in the U.S. as Survival in Auschwitz, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. It has been described as one of the most important works of the twentieth century.
Enrico Mattei (April 29, 1906 - October 27, 1962) was an Italian public administrator. After World War II he was given the task of dismantling the Italian Petroleum Agency Agip, a state enterprise established by the Fascist regime. Instead Mattei enlarged and reorganized it into the National Fuel Trust Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI).
Giuseppe Siri (May 20, 1906—May 2, 1989) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Genoa from 1946 to 1987, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1953 by Pope Pius XII.
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker. He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was the tenth President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006. He is currently a Senator for life in the Italian Senate.
Massimo W. Salvadori, also Max (1908 - 1992) born in London, England June 16, 1908 was a British-Italian historian and anit-Fascist. Salvadori was involved in the anti-Fascist movement in Italy before WWII. Imprisoned from 1931-32 as a result of his political activities, Salvadori fled Italy for Switzerland. In 1943 he joined the British army and after participating in landings at Salerno and Anzio, parachuted into Italy to organize resistance.
Renato Dulbecco (born February 22, 1914) is an Italian virologist who won a 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on reverse transcriptase. In 1973 he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Theodore Puck and Harry Eagle.
Ivanoe Bonomi (18 October 1873 – 20 April 1951) was an Italian politician and statesman before and after World War II. Bonomi was born in Mantua. He was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1909, representing Mantua as a member of the Italian Socialist Party. He was among those expelled from the party in 1912, for his advocacy of reformism and moderation, as well as his support for the Italian invasion of Libya.
Ferruccio Parri (January 19, 1890 – December 8, 1981) was an Italian partisan and politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy for several months in 1945. During the resistance he was known as Maurizio.
Cesare Pavese (September 9, 1908 – August 27, 1950) was an Italian poet, novelist, literary critic and translator; he is widely considered among the major authors of the 20th century in his home country.
Giuseppe Saragat (19 September 1898 - 11 June 1988) was an Italian politician who was the fifth President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. Saragat was born in Turin, from Sardinian parents. He was a moderate socialist, who split from the Italian Socialist Party in 1947, out of concern over its close (at the time) alliance with the Communists, to found the Italian Socialist Workers' Party, which would soon become the Italian Democratic Socialist Party.
Elio Vittorini (July 23, 1908 - February 12, 1966) was an Italian writer and novelist. He was a contemporary of Cesare Pavese and an influential voice in the modernist school of novel writing. His best-known work is the anti-fascist novel Conversations in Sicily, for which he was jailed when it was published in 1941. The first U.S. edition of the novel, published in 1949, included an introduction from Ernest Hemingway, whose style influenced Vittorini and that novel in particular.
Altiero Spinelli (31 August 1907 — 23 May 1986) was an Italian political theorist and a European Federalist. Spinelli is referred to as one of the "Founding Fathers of the European Union" due to his co-authorship of the Ventotene Manifesto, his founding role in the European federalist movement, his strong influence on the first few decades of post-World War II European integration and, later, his role in re-launching the integration process in the 1980s.
Gianni Rodari (23 October 1920 - 14 April 1980) was an Italian writer and journalist, most famous for his books for children. He won the Hans Christian Andersen Award in 1970 and is considered by many to be Italy's most important twentieth-century children's author. His books have been translated into many languages, though few have been published in English.