Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; April 16 1896–December 25, 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist. Also active as a journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishment Dada movement.
Imre Nagy (June 7, 1896 – June 16, 1958) was a Hungarian politician, appointed Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions. Nagy's second term ended when his non-Soviet-backed government was brought down by Soviet invasion in the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956, resulting in Nagy's execution on charges of treason two years later.
The State Protection Authority was the secret police force of Hungary from 1945 until 1956. It was conceived of as an external appendage of the Soviet Union's secret police forces, but attained an indigenous reputation for brutality during a series of purges beginning in 1948, intensifying in 1949 and ending in 1953. In 1953 Joseph Stalin died, and Imre Nagy (a moderate reformer) was appointed Prime Minister of Hungary.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. The revolt began as a student demonstration which attracted thousands as it marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building. A student delegation entering the radio building in an attempt to broadcast its demands was detained.
József Mindszenty (March 29, 1892—May 6, 1975) was a cardinal and the head of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary. He became known as a steadfast supporter of Church freedom and opponent of communism and the often brutal Stalinist persecution in his country. As a result, he was tortured and given a life sentence in a 1949 show trial that generated worldwide condemnation, including a United Nations resolution.
János Kádár (May 26, 1912–July 6, 1989), was a Hungarian politician, the communist leader of Hungary from 1956 to 1988, and twice served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, from 1956 to 1958 and again from 1961 to 1965. He had Slovak roots from his mother's side and German roots from his father's side.
Ernő Gerő (born Ernő Singer) (July 8, 1898 - March 12, 1980) was a Hungarian Communist leader in the period after World War II and briefly in 1956 the most powerful man in Hungary as first secretary of its ruling communist party. Gerő was born in Terbegec, Hungary to Jewish parents, though he later totally repudiated religion and supported the persecution of Jews under Stalinism.
Pál Maléter (4 September 1917 - 16 June 1958) was born to Hungarian parents in Eperjes, a city in the northern part of Historical Hungary, today part of Slovakia. He was the military leader of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Maléter studied medicine at the Charles University, Prague, before moving to Budapest in 1938, going to the military academy there. He fought on the Eastern Front, until captured by the Red Army.
Mátyás Rákosi (born March 9, 1892 as Mátyás Rosenfeld, died February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician, born in present-day Serbia. He was the ruler de facto of the communist Hungary between 1945 and 1956 — first in his capacity as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (1945–1948) and later as General Secretary of the Hungarian Working People's Party (1948–1956). His rule was characterised as a Stalinist type dictatorship.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev, was a Soviet military commander, who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, liberated much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin. Later, as the Commander of Warsaw Pact forces, Konev led the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 by Soviet armoured divisions.
András Hegedüs (31 October 1922 - 23 October 1999) was a Hungarian Communist politician who served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1955 to 1956. Hegedűs fled to the Soviet Union on 28 October, the fifth day of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Hegedűs returned to Hungary in 1958 and taught sociology.
József Dudás (September 22, 1912 - January 19, 1957), a Romanian/Hungarian politician and resistance fighter, was born in Marosvásárhely in Austria-Hungary. As a very young man, he joined the illegal Communist Party in Transylvania. In 1933 he was arrested and sentenced to nine years in prison. When Northern Transylvania was transferred to Hungary as part of the Second Vienna Award in 1940, he was released and he moved to Budapest.
The Gerő Interregnum occurred in Hungary between the downfall of Mátyás Rákosi and the appointment of János Kádár as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. On 18 July 1956, the Hungarian leader Mátyás Rákos was told to resign by Atanas Mikoyan, a member of the Soviet leadership who had the responsibility of overseeing Soviet relations with east European parties.
Dr. Béla Király (14 April 1912 - 4 July 2009) was a Hungarian resistance fighter during World War II, as well as a military historian, author, and politician. He was born in Kaposvár, Hungary. Commissioned as a second lieutenant of the Hungarian Army in 1935, he fought actively in World War II. Following the war, he joined the Hungarian Communist Party, and rose to the rank of major general in the Hungarian army.
István Bibó (August 7, 1911, Budapest – May 10, 1979, Budapest) was a Hungarian lawyer, civil servant, politician and political theorist. During the Hungarian Revolution he acted as the Minister of State for the Hungarian National Government. When the Soviets invaded to crush the rebellious government, he was the last Minister left at his post in the Hungarian Parliament building in Budapest.
The "Blood in the Water" match (in Hungarian Melbourne-i vérfürdő, "Blood Bath" of Melbourne) was a water polo match between Hungary and the USSR at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, the most famous match in water polo history. The match, which took place on December 6, 1956, was against the background of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and saw Hungary defeat the USSR 4–0.
On October 23, 1956, a group of Hungarian students compiled a list of sixteen points containing key national policy demands. Following an anti-Soviet protest march through the Hungarian capital of Budapest, the students attempted to enter the city's main broadcasting station to read their demands on the air.
Gergely Pongrátz (Gherla, 18 February 1932 – Kiskunmajsa, 18 May 2005) was a famous veteran of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. He was the commander of arguably the largest and perhaps the best-known group of freedom fighters, at the Uprising's strongest and most lengthy point of resistance, Budapest's Corvin Passage (Corvin Köz); between the 1 and 9 November 1956. Under his command, the Corvin Passage fighters destroyed at least a dozen Soviet tanks, and resisted several waves of assault.
Although the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 failed in its efforts to oust the ruling Communist government of Hungary, the uprising provided inspiration for many artists, writers, poets, composers and filmmakers.
The Southern Group of Forces was a Soviet Army formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Following the Iassy-Kishinev Operation, on June 15, 1945, the 26th and 37th Armies in Romania and Bulgaria, plus a division which had reached Yugoslavia, were grouped into the Southern Group of Forces (YUGV). A year later, the 37th Army became the 10th Mechanised Army.
Listed below are some significant events in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, which began on October 23, 1956 and was brutally crushed by Soviet forces in November. On October 23 a crowd of 100,000 was waiting at the Parliament for Imre Nagy, the Communist politician whom they wanted to change the face of the country. When Nagy appeared at last at 9 p.m.
Grigore Preoteasa (August 25, 1915-November 4, 1957) was a Romanian communist activist, journalist, and politician, who served as Communist Romania's Minister of Foreign Affairs between October 4, 1955 and the time of his death.