Hospodar or gospodar is a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" or "master". The rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia were styled hospodars in Slavic writings from the 15th century to 1866. Hospodar was used in addition to the title voivod. When writing in Romanian, the term Domn was used.
Pipo of Ozora (born Filippo Buondelmonti degli Scolari; known as Ozorai Pipó in Hungarian; Filippo Scolari, Lo Scolari or Pippo Spano in Italian, Филип Мађарин, Филип Маджарин or Philip Madzharin, Philip the Magyar in Bulgarian and Serbian epic songs; 1369 - December 1426) was an Italian condottiero, general, strategist and confidant of Sigismund of Hungary.
The Battle of Karánsebes was an early episode in the Austro-Turkish War of 1787-1791. Different portions of an Austrian army, which was scouting for forces of the Ottoman Empire, fired on each other by mistake, in a self-inflicted disaster. The battle took place on the evening of 17 September 1788. Ottomans were victorious and captured the city. The army of Austria, approximately 100,000 strong, was setting up camp around the town of Karánsebes.
The Pannonian Sea was a shallow ancient sea located in the area today known as the Pannonian Plain in Central Europe. The Pannonian Sea existed during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, when three to four kilometres of marine sediments were deposited in the Pannonian Basin.
Cumania is a name formerly used to designate several distinct lands in Central and Eastern Europe inhabited by and under the military dominance of the Cumans, a nomadic tribe of Western Kipchaks also known as the Polovtsians. Besides this Latin term, Cumania was also known as Dasht-i Qipchaq in Muslim sources and Zemlja Poloveckaja or Pole Poloveckoe (Polovcian Plain) in Russian sources.
Krassó-Szörény is the name of administrative county of the historic Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is presently mostly located in south-western Romania, with one small part which is located in Serbia. The capital of the county was Lugoj. Its name originates from one of the Slavic tribes which settled the area in the 600s AD - the Severyans.
Torontál is the name of administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is presently in northern Serbia (eastern Vojvodina, except the small part near Belgrade, which is part of Central Serbia), western Romania and southern Hungary. The capital of the county was Nagybecskerek, the current Zrenjanin.
A comitatus is the name of an administrative unit in the Kingdom of Hungary and in the Republic of Hungary from the 10th century until 1949 when it was abolished by the new constitution. The area of the Kingdom of Hungary also included parts of present-day neighbouring countries of Hungary, i.e.
The palatine was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful prime minister and supreme judge) from the kingdom's rise up to 1848/1918. Initially, he was in fact the representative of the king, later the vice-regent. In the early centuries of the kingdom, he was appointed by the king, later elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Habsburgs solidified their hold of Hungary, the dignity became an appointed position once again.
Scythia Minor, "Lesser Scythia" was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to today's Dobrogea, with a part in Romania and a part in Bulgaria. The earliest description of the region is found in Herodotus, who identified as Scythia the region starting north of the Danube delta.
Phanariots, Phanariotes, or Phanariote Greeks were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar (Φανάρι, modern Fener), the chief Greek quarter of Constantinople, where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is situated. For all their cosmopolitanism and often western education, the Phanariots were aware of their Hellenism; according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos' Philotheou Parerga:We are a race completely Hellenic.
The Habsburg Monarchy (or Habsburg Empire) covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg (1278–1780), and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine (since 1780), between 1526 and 1867/1918. The capital was mainly Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was Prague. The monarchy from 1804 to 1867 is usually referred to as the "Austrian Empire" and from 1867 to 1918 as "Austria-Hungary".
A Mineriad is the term used to name any of the successive violent interventions of miners in Bucharest. These interventions were generally seen as aimed at wrestling policy changes or simply material advantages from the current political power. The term is mostly used to refer to the most violent mineriad, which happened on the 13 June, 14 June and 15 June 1990.
Unio Trium Nationum (Latin for "Union of the Three Nations" was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by three Estates of Transylvania: the nobility, the clergy, the Saxon burghers, and the free Szeklers.
Gesta Hungarorum (Latin for The Deeds of the Hungarians) is a record of early Hungarian history by an unknown author who describes himself as Anonymi Bele Regis Notarii ('the anonymous notary of king Bela'), but is generally cited as Anonymus. Anonymus was schooled at the University of Paris and was employed at the time of writing as a notarias, presumably in the court of Bela III of Hungary (1172-1196).
The Csango people are a Hungarian ethnic group of Roman Catholic faith living mostly in the Romanian region of Moldavia, especially in the Bacău County. Their traditional language, Csango, an old Hungarian dialect is still in use, though the larger part of them speak Romanian.
Târgu Mureş is a town in Romania with an ethnically mixed population that was almost equally distributed between Romanians and Hungarians after the fall of the communist regime in December 1989. In March 1990, short-lived, but violent clashes occurred there between the two ethnic groups in the town, involving ethnic Romanians from neighboring villages, too. These clashes (also known as Black March by the Hungarians) left several people dead and hundreds injured.
The Golaniad was a protest in Romania in the University Square, Bucharest. It was initiated by students and professors at the University of Bucharest. The Golaniad started in April 1990, before the election of 20 May 1990, which was the first election after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Their main demand was that former members of the Communist Party (4 million adults out of a total population of 22 million) should be banned from standing in elections.
The Pandurs were Croatian Austrian frontier soldiers, who inhabited the areas of the Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) and Military Frontier, and fought not only in the East-Turkish front, but also in the West-European front. They were a non-linear army, made out mainly of Croats. The Pandurs were deployed primarily to raid behind enemy lines, attack baggage and supply trains, conduct guerrilla warfare, and to fight in extended formations.
The Budai Nagy Antal Revolt or Bobâlna Revolt (Hungarian Erdélyi parasztfelkelés, that is Transylvanian peasant revolt), of 1437 in Transylvania was the only significant popular revolt in the Kingdom of Hungary prior to the great peasant war of 1514. The event is named after the leader of the revolt, Antal Nagy de Buda, or is simply called the Transylvanian Peasant Revolt. Romanian history writing prefers using "Bobâlna Revolt", by the place where the peasant rebels first gathered.
The Revolt of Horea, Cloşca and Crişan (2 November 1784 - 28 February 1785) began in Zarand County, Transylvania, but it soon spread all throughout the Apuseni Mountains. Their main demands were related to the feudal serfdom and the lack of political equality between Romanians and other ethnicities of Transylvania. The leaders were Horea, Cloşca and Crişan. They fought at Câmpeni, Abrud and Roşia and defeated the Austrian Imperial Army at Brad on 27 November 1784.