A Declaração de Balfour é uma carta escrita em 2 de novembro de 1917 pelo então secretario britânico dos Assuntos Estrangeiros, Arthur James Balfour, enviado ao Lord Rothschild sobre sua vontade de conceder ao povo judeu uma facilitação de povoação da Terra de Israel caso a Inglaterra conseguisse derrotar o Império Otomano, que, até então, dominava aquela região.
The political status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip is one of the most violently disputed issues in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Various conferences and negotiations have been conducted to determine the status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
The Levant is defined as the geographical region bordering the Mediterranean, roughly between Egypt and Anatolia (modern Turkey). The southern Levant is therefore roughly the same area as that occupied by the modern states of Israel (including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) and Jordan. These terms are used by archaeologists, to avoid taking a modern geo-political stance in a region rife with border disputes.
In the Book of Genesis, Abraham's grandson was Jacob who changed his name to Israel and had twelve sons who each fathered twelve tribes also known as the "children of Israel". Judah was the oldest of Israel's sons. Evidence of a Jewish presence in Israel dates back over 3,000 years, to the formation of the religion and people. The name "Jews" derives from their origin in the Kingdom of Judah.
Israeli settlements are Israeli-only civilian communities in the Israeli-occupied territories. Such settlements currently exist in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. The latter two areas are governed under Israeli civil law but are considered to be under military occupation by the international community. Eighteen settlements formerly existed in the Sinai Peninsula and twenty-one in the Gaza Strip.
Irgun was a militant Zionist group that operated in the British mandate of Palestine between 1931 and 1948. It was an offshoot of the earlier and larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah . Since the group originally broke from the Haganah it became known as the Haganah Bet, or alternatively as Haganah Ha'leumit (ההגנה הלאומית) or Ha'ma'amad (המעמד&lrm). Irgun members were absorbed into the Israel Defence Forces at the start of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
Nazareth is the capital and largest city in the North District of Israel. Known as "the Arab capital of Israel," the population is made up predominantly of Arab citizens of Israel. In the New Testament, the city is described as the childhood home of Jesus, and as such is a center of Christian pilgrimage, with many shrines commemorating biblical events.
The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Following a 1963 Draft Constitution the first version of the Charter was written by Ahmad Shukeiri, the first chairman of the PLO, using the slightly different name al-Mithaq al-Qawmi al-Filastini, meant to reflect its origins in Nasser's Pan-Arabism..
The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai is a triangular peninsula in Egypt which is about 60,000 km (23,000 sq mi). It lies between the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and the Red Sea to the south, and is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia as opposed to Africa, effectively serving as a land bridge between the two continents.
The Six-Day War of June 5–10, 1967 was a war between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The Arab states of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria also contributed troops and arms. At the war's end, Israel had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.
The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli jet fighter planes and motor torpedo boats, on June 8, 1967, during the on-going Six-Day War. The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members (naval officers, seamen, two Marines, and a civilian), wounded 171 crew members, and severely damaged the ship.
Zionism is the international nationalist political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, the historical homeland of the Jews. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to support it. Zionism is based on historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel.
Proposals for a Palestinian state refer to the proposed establishment of an independent state for the Palestinian people in the Palestinian territories that have been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967 and before by Egypt and by Jordan since 1949.
The Palestine Mandate (also known as the British Mandate of Palestine or for Palestine) was a legal instrument for the administration of Palestine formally approved by the League of Nations in June 1922, based on a draft by the principal Allied and associated powers after the First World War. The mandate formalized British rule in Palestine from 1917-1948. The boundaries of two new states were laid down within the territory of the Mandate, Palestine and Transjordan.
Golda Meir was the fourth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. Meir was elected Prime Minister of Israel on 17 March 1969, after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister. Israel's first and the world's third female to hold such an office, she was described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics years before the epithet became associated with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher.
Osirak, also spelled Osiraq,, was a French-supplied 40 MW light-water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR) in Iraq. It was constructed by the Iraqi government at the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, 18 km (11 miles) south-east of Baghdad in 1977.
The King David Hotel bombing was an attack carried out by the militant right-wing Zionist underground organisation, the Irgun, on the King David Hotel in Jerusalem on 22 July 1946. The hotel was the site of the central offices of the British Mandatory authorities of Palestine, the Secretariat of the Government of Palestine and Headquarters of the British Forces in Palestine and Transjordan. The attack was the deadliest directed against the British during the Mandate era (1920–1948).
The Lillehammer affair refers to the assassination by Mossad agents of a Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Bouchiki, in Lillehammer, Norway on July 21, 1973. The Israeli agents had mistaken their victim for Ali Hassan Salameh, the chief of operations for Black September. Most of the Mossad team was captured and tried for the murder, in a major blow to the intelligence agency's reputation.
The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and mass departure of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Islamic countries. The migration started in the late 19th century, but accelerated after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Between 800,000-1,000,000 Jews were forced to leave their homes in Arab countries due to persecution and anti-Semitism.
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. They also resulted in Sadat and Begin sharing the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
The Emirate of Transjordan was a former Ottoman territory incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine in 1921 as an autonomous political division under as-Sharif Abdullah bin al-Husayn. This move was formalized by the addition of an August 1922 clause to the charter governing the Mandate for Palestine.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby GCB, GCMG, GCVO (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was a British soldier and administrator most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918.