In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolkhis was an ancient Georgian, state kingdom and region in Western Georgia, which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its related groups. The Kingdom of Colchis as an early Georgian state contributed significantly in development of the medieval Georgian statehood after its unification with eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia-Kartli.
Iberia, also known as Iveria, was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC - 5th century AD), corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. The term Caucasian Iberia (or Eastern Iberia) is used to distinguish it from the Iberian Peninsula, where the present day countries of Spain, Portugal and Andorra are located.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR for short, was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union. It consisted of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics, being separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains.
The President of Georgia is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Government of Georgia. Executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The office was first introduced after Georgia’s declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in April 1991. The President serves a five-year term. The incumbent is Mikheil Saakashvili.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia, 1918–1921, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, Ottoman Empire, Democratic Republic of Armenia in the south, and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast.
Egrisi is a medieval Georgian name for the region and kingdom in the western part of modern-day Georgia, known to the Byzantine authors as Lazica and to Persians as Lazistan after the Laz tribe, which at some time dominated the local ruling élite. The kingdom flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered part of the territory of the former kingdom Colchis and subjugated the territory of modern day Abkhazia.
The flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted by the Georgian SSR on April 11, 1951. Prior to this, the flag was red with the Georgian characters სსსრ (SSSR) in gold in the top-left corner. Between 1937 and the adoption of the above flag in the 1940s, the flag was red, with the Georgian characters საქართველოს სსრ (Sakartvelos SSR) in gold in the top-left corner. Between 1922 and 1937, the flag was red, with the Cyrillic characters ССРГ (SSRG) in the top left-hand corner.
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78. It was signed on March 3, 1878 at San Stefano, a village west of Istanbul, by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Alexander Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.
Tao-Klarjeti is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian principalities, now forming part of north-eastern Turkey and divided among the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars. Tao and Klarjeti were originally only the names of the two most important provinces of the Georgian lands that stretched from the “Georgian Gorge” (Turk. Gürcü Boğazı) in the south to the Lesser Caucasus in the north.
Tabal (Bib. Tubal, Gk. Τιβαρηνοί Tibarenoi, Lat. Tibareni, Thobeles in Josephus) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia, forming after the collapse of the Hittite Empire and surviving into Roman times. Some scholars associate them with the Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek). According to the archaeologist Kurt Bittel, Tabal first appears after the collapse of the Hittite Empire.
The Principality of Abkhazia emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. The principality retained a degree of autonomy under the Ottoman, and then the Russian rule, but was eventually absorbed into the Russian Empire in 1864.
The Treaty of Gulistan was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. The peace negotiations were precipitated by Lankaran's fall to Gen. Pyotr Kotlyarevsky on January 1, 1813. The treaty confirmed inclusion of modern day Azerbaijan, Daghestan and Eastern Georgia into the Russian Empire.
An aul is a type of fortified village found throughout the Caucasus mountains, especially in Dagestan. The auls of Svanetia, with their distinctive medieval towers, have been recognized as a World Heritage Site. Comparable towers may be found elsewhere in the Caucasus, specifically in Ingushetia. The auls are generally built out of stone, on faces of ridges or against cliffs in order to provide protection against surprise attacks.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика, Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika; also known as the Transcaucasian Federation) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state composed of the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in the South Caucasus.
Tetri Giorgi is one of the local names of Christian Saint George in Georgia, specifically in the country’s northeastern highland districts. The popularity of the cult led to establishment of Tetri Giorgi as a national symbol, part of Georgia's coat of arms in the years 1918-1921 and 1991-2004. The name of Tetri Giorgi has also been adopted by several political and non-political organizations, significantly by anti-Soviet Georgian émigré group in Europe and the 1990s paramilitary unit.
The Mushki were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from Assyrian sources. They do not appear in Hittite records. Several authors have connected them with the Moschoi (Μόσχοι) of Greek sources and the Georgian tribe of the Meskhi. Josephus Flavius identified the Moschoi with the Biblical Meshech.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (1762-1798) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, which had existed independently since the disintegration of the united Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century. Historically, Kartli was the dominant province in Georgia, but at that time, it was weakened by Persian military invasions more than its neighboring kingdom from the east.
The Georgian–Abkhazian conflict refers to the ethnic conflict between Georgians and Abkhazians in Abkhazia, which is presently a de facto independent partially recognized republic. In a broader sense, Georgian-Abkhaz conflict can be considered as part of a geopolitical conflict in the Caucasus region, intensified at the end of the 20th century in conjunction with the Collapse of the Soviet Union. The conflict, one of the bloodiest in the post-Soviet area, remains unresolved.
The Treaty of Finckenstein was concluded between France and Persia in the castle of Finckenstein on 4 May 1807. Napoleon I guaranteed the integrity of Persia, recognized part of Georgia and other eastern Transcaucasia as the Shah's possession, and was to make all possible efforts for restoring those territories to him. Napoleon also promised to furnish the Shah with arms, officers and workmen.
Diauehi (Diauhi or Diaokhi; "the Land of the Sons of Diau") was an ancient people in northeastern Anatolia, mentioned in the Urartian inscriptions. It is usually (though not always) identified with Daiaeni of the Yonjalu inscription of the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I’s third year (1118 BC).
The Treaty of Georgievsk was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783. The treaty established Georgia as a protectorate of Russia, which guaranteed Georgia's territorial integrity and the continuation of its reigning Bagrationi dynasty in return for prerogatives in the conduct of Georgian foreign affairs.
The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on May 28, 1812 in Bucharest at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. Under its terms, the Prut River became the border between the two empires, thus leaving Bessarabia under Russian rule. Also, Russia obtained trading rights on the Danube. A truce was signed with the rebelling Serbs and autonomy given to Serbia.