Iberia, also known as Iveria, was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC - 5th century AD), corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. The term Caucasian Iberia (or Eastern Iberia) is used to distinguish it from the Iberian Peninsula, where the present day countries of Spain, Portugal and Andorra are located.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR for short, was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union. It consisted of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics, being separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains.
Egrisi is a medieval Georgian name for the region and kingdom in the western part of modern-day Georgia, known to the Byzantine authors as Lazica and to Persians as Lazistan after the Laz tribe, which at some time dominated the local ruling élite. The kingdom flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered part of the territory of the former kingdom Colchis and subjugated the territory of modern day Abkhazia.
The flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted by the Georgian SSR on April 11, 1951. Prior to this, the flag was red with the Georgian characters სსსრ (SSSR) in gold in the top-left corner. Between 1937 and the adoption of the above flag in the 1940s, the flag was red, with the Georgian characters საქართველოს სსრ (Sakartvelos SSR) in gold in the top-left corner. Between 1922 and 1937, the flag was red, with the Cyrillic characters ССРГ (SSRG) in the top left-hand corner.
Tao-Klarjeti is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian principalities, now forming part of north-eastern Turkey and divided among the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars. Tao and Klarjeti were originally only the names of the two most important provinces of the Georgian lands that stretched from the “Georgian Gorge” (Turk. Gürcü Boğazı) in the south to the Lesser Caucasus in the north.
Tabal (Bib. Tubal, Gk. Τιβαρηνοί Tibarenoi, Lat. Tibareni, Thobeles in Josephus) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia, forming after the collapse of the Hittite Empire and surviving into Roman times. Some scholars associate them with the Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek). According to the archaeologist Kurt Bittel, Tabal first appears after the collapse of the Hittite Empire.
The Principality of Abkhazia emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. The principality retained a degree of autonomy under the Ottoman, and then the Russian rule, but was eventually absorbed into the Russian Empire in 1864.
The Treaty of Gulistan was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. The peace negotiations were precipitated by Lankaran's fall to Gen. Pyotr Kotlyarevsky on January 1, 1813. The treaty confirmed inclusion of modern day Azerbaijan, Daghestan and Eastern Georgia into the Russian Empire.
An aul is a type of fortified village found throughout the Caucasus mountains, especially in Dagestan. The auls of Svanetia, with their distinctive medieval towers, have been recognized as a World Heritage Site. Comparable towers may be found elsewhere in the Caucasus, specifically in Ingushetia. The auls are generally built out of stone, on faces of ridges or against cliffs in order to provide protection against surprise attacks.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR, Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика, Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika; also known as the Transcaucasian Federation) (February 1918 – May 1918) was a short-lived state composed of the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia in the South Caucasus.
Tetri Giorgi is one of the local names of Christian Saint George in Georgia, specifically in the country’s northeastern highland districts. The popularity of the cult led to establishment of Tetri Giorgi as a national symbol, part of Georgia's coat of arms in the years 1918-1921 and 1991-2004. The name of Tetri Giorgi has also been adopted by several political and non-political organizations, significantly by anti-Soviet Georgian émigré group in Europe and the 1990s paramilitary unit.
The Mushki were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from Assyrian sources. They do not appear in Hittite records. Several authors have connected them with the Moschoi (Μόσχοι) of Greek sources and the Georgian tribe of the Meskhi. Josephus Flavius identified the Moschoi with the Biblical Meshech.
The Georgian–Abkhazian conflict refers to the ethnic conflict between Georgians and Abkhazians in Abkhazia, which is presently a de facto independent partially recognized republic. In a broader sense, Georgian-Abkhaz conflict can be considered as part of a geopolitical conflict in the Caucasus region, intensified at the end of the 20th century in conjunction with the Collapse of the Soviet Union. The conflict, one of the bloodiest in the post-Soviet area, remains unresolved.
The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on May 28, 1812 in Bucharest at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. Under its terms, the Prut River became the border between the two empires, thus leaving Bessarabia under Russian rule. Also, Russia obtained trading rights on the Danube. A truce was signed with the rebelling Serbs and autonomy given to Serbia.
Karachayevsk is a town in the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, in the Caucasus Mountains, at around 43°46′23″N 41°55′1″E / 43.77306°N 41.91694°E / 43.77306; 41.91694. Kuban River flows through the city. Karachaeyvsk was founded in 1929 as Georgievskoye and was soon renamed after Anastas Mikoyan as Mikoyan-Shahar. From October 5, 1944 to January 1, 1957, when the Karachays were in exile to the Central Asian deserts, it was part of the Georgian SSR as Klukhori.
The Sukhumi massacre took place on September 27, 1993, during and after the fall of Sukhumi into separatist hands in the course of the War in Abkhazia. It was perpetrated against Georgian civilians of Sukhumi, mainly by militia forces of Abkhaz separatists, their North Caucasian and Russian allies. It became a part of the bloody campaign carried out by the separatists, which is known as the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia
The Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic or Abkhaz ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Georgian SSR. It came into existence in February 1931, when the Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia (SSR Abkhazia or SSRA), originally created in March 1921, was transformed to the status of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. The Abkhaz ASSR adopted its own constitution on 2 August 1937.
The Catholicate of Abkhazia was a subdivision of the Georgian Orthodox Church that existed as an independent entity in western Georgia from the 1470s to 1814. It was headed by the Catholicos of Abkhazia, officially styled as the Catholicos Patriarch of Imereti, Odishi, Ponto-Abkhaz-Guria, Racha-Lechkhum-Svaneti, Ossetians, Dvals, and all of the North.
The Abazasdze was a noble family in medieval Georgia, probably an offshoot of the Georgian feudal house of Tbeli. A purported founder of the Abazasdze dynasty, Tbeli Abazay, is recorded in the 11th century inscription from Bortsvisjvari. The family had attained to the high dignity of eristavi (i.e. , a hereditary governor) of Kartli by the first half of the 11th century.
The Spring Rhythms. Tbilisi-80 was a musical event held in Tbilisi, capital of the Georgian SSR, Soviet Union, from March 8 to March 16, 1980. It was the first official rock festival in the Soviet Union and is frequently considered the turning point in the history of Soviet and Russian rock music.
Otrok (also Atrak) was an early eleventh-century Kipchak chieftain who was involved in the wars with Kievan Rus', and later served to the king of Georgia. He came of the Sharukanids, one the ruling houses of the Kipchak tribal confederation known to the Rus' as "Wild Cumans".
Phasis was an ancient and early medieval city on the eastern Black Sea coast, founded in the 7th/6th century BC as a colony of the Milesian Greeks at the mouth of the eponymous river in Colchis, near the modern-day port city of Poti, Georgia.