Khadamat-e Etela'at-e Dawlati (Persian 'خدمات اطلاعات دولتی'), almost always known by its acronym KHAD (or KhAD), is the main security agency and intelligence agency of Afghanistan, and also served as the secret police during the Soviet occupation. Successor to AGSA (Department for Safeguarding the Interests of Afghanistan) and KAM, KHAD was nominally part of the Afghan state, but it was firmly under the control of the Soviet KGB until 1989.
Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. Before final peace negotiations were concluded in 1921, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries.
The Hindu Kush is a 500-mile mountain range stretching between north-western Pakistan and eastern and central Afghanistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in the Chitral region of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and is a sub-range of the Himalayas. It is also calculated to be the geographic center of population of the world.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a government of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992 recognised by 8 countries. It was both ideologically close to and economically dependent on the Soviet Union, and was a major belligerent of the Afghan Civil War.
The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 .
Airyanəm Vaējah, which approximately means "expanse of the Aryans," is a reference in the Zoroastrian Avesta to one of Ahura Mazda's "sixteen perfect lands. " It is considered the best of places, but on the other hand the Vīdēvdād 1 claims that there are two months of summer there and ten of winter, and it suffers from flooding at the end of winter.
The Saka (Old Iranian Sakā; Latinized Sacae) were a Scythian tribe, rendered in Greek as Σάκαι, in Chinese as, and in Sanskrit as शक, referring to those Scythians who founded the Indo-Scythian kingdom in the 2nd century BC.
The voluntary repatriation of Afghans is governed by a tripartite accord signed in Geneva April 2002 by Iran, Afghanistan and the UNHCR. Under the program, voluntary repatriation centers were established in ten Iranian cities, such as Mashhad, Zahedan, Qom, Isfahan, Kerman, Shiraz, Yazd, Arak, and two in Tehran. The centers provide Afghan refugees with an assistance package, including a small monetary grant to facilitate their return.
The Durand Line refers to the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, which is poorly marked and approximately 2,640 kilometers (1,610 miles) long. It was established after the 1893 Durand Line Agreement between the Government of colonial British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence. It is named after Henry Mortimer Durand, the Foreign Secretary of British India at the time.
On March 27, 2003, deputy defense minister of Afghanistan general Abdul Rashid Dostum created an office for the North Zone of Afghanistan and appointed officials to it, defying interim president Hamid Karzai's orders that there be no zones in Afghanistan.
Before the 1600s and prior, the Afghans that lived in cities were subject to live under foreign rulers. Those who refused were forced to live nomadic style in isolated mountain regions where the law of a central government did not reach to them. The Afghans were pushing for the establishment of their own state but many attempts have failed. In early 1700s Afghan leaders or tribal chiefs from Kandahar began to organize themselves and for the first time they freed themselves from foreign rule.
The Afghan Museum is private museum of culture and cultural history of Afghanistan, situated in the historic and picturesque Speicherstadt (warehouse district) of Hamburg, Germany. The museum's mandate is to bring the authentic and traditional aspects of Afghan culture to life.
The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the state of Afghanistan, during the rule of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan government. In 1996, the country was renamed the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan by the Taliban, after seizing control of the majority of the country.
The Afghan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program (DDR) was established by the government of Afghanistan to disarm 90,000 former combatants and integrate them into civilian life. The Canadian Government has said that the mission was completed on July 2005, although only 50,000 soldiers have been captured and integrated into civilian life. There are still an estimated 40,000 soldiers who are loyal to General Muhamod Fahim.
The Afghan Constitution Commission (or Afghan Constitutional Commission) was established October 5, 2002 as required by the Bonn Agreement, which stipulated that a new Afghan constitution be adopted by a loya jirga. The loya jirga was required to convene within eighteen months of the establishment of Afghan Transitional Administration, which was established in June 2002. After some delay, the proposed Afghan Constitution was presented to President Hamid Karzai on November 3, 2003.
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was founded in 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan and ended with their fall from power in 2001. At the peak of their influence the Taliban never controlled the entire area of Afghanistan, as about 10% of the country in the northeast was held by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan.
Muḥammad Shahābuddīn Ghorī, originally called Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Ibn Sām but famously known as Muḥammad of Ghor and Muḥammad Ghorī, (1162 – 15 March 1206), was a powerful governor and general and ultimately sultan of the Ghorid dynasty, centered in modern day Afghanistan. He was the governor of Ghaznā and the surrounding area from 1173 to 1192. He was sultan from 1202 until his death in 1206.
The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established on 28 March, 2002 by UN Security Council resolution 1401. Its original mandate was to support the Bonn Agreement (December 2001); reviewed annually, this mandate has been altered over time to reflect the needs of the country and was recently extended until 23 March 2010 by resolution 1746 .
Jayapala Janjua Shahi, the son of Asatapala and father of Anandapal, was the first king and founder of the Hindushahi dynasty of Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan. He succeeded the last Brahman Shahi king Bhimadeva in about 964 CE, and thus began the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasties. Epithets from the Bari Kot inscriptions record his full title as "Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapala deva" the first Emperor of the Janjua Shahi phase.
Negudar (Nikudar, Neguder) was a Mongol general under Berke, and a Golden Horde Noyan. With many other Golden Horde generals, he embraced Islam in the late 13th century. He subsequently took the Muslim name of Ahmad Khan. Before the conflicts between Berke and Hulegu, Negudar fostered peace in Eastern Khorasan and its surrounding areas in Central Asia.