Balkh, was an ancient city and centre of Zoroastrianism in what is now northern Afghanistan. Today it is a small town in the province of Balkh, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya River. It was one of the major cities of Khorasan. The ancient city of Balkh, in today's Afghanistan was under the Greeks renamed Bactra, giving its name to Bactria.
Afghanistan has been invaded many times, its boundaries and governments almost always in dispute. Invaders include the Mughal rulers of South Asia, Russian Tsars, Soviet Union, British Empire, and currently a coalition force of NATO troops with UN-backing led by US armed forces.
A 502-delegate loya jirga convened in Kabul, Afghanistan, on December 14, 2003, to consider the proposed Afghan Constitution. Originally planned to last ten days, the assembly did not endorse the charter until January 4, 2004. As has been generally the case with these assemblies, the endorsement came by way of consensus rather than a vote. Afghanistan's last constitution was drafted for the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in November 1987.
Siruzkoh, a city destroyed in 1222 by Genghis Khan, is thought to be the former capital of Afghanistan. Its existence and location have been in dispute, although the international expedition or archelogists, geographs and writers "Expedition Culturelle et Scientifique Sur la Route de la soie" under the patronage of Unesco claimed to have rediscovered its whereabouts during an expedition to Afghanistan in 2003.
The Kharoṣṭhī script, is an ancient abugida (or "alphasyllabary") used by the Gandhara culture, nestled in the historic northwest South Asia to write the Gāndhārī and Sanskrit languages. It was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE. It was also in use in Kushan, Sogdiana and along the Silk Road where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya.
Mahmud of Ghazni (November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030), also known as Yāmīn al-Dawlah Maḥmūd was the most prominent ruler of the Persian Ghaznavid dynasty of Turkic origin and ruled from 997 until his death in 1030. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which extended from Afghanistan into most of Iran as well as Pakistan and regions of North-West India.
Officially the Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-Establishment of Permanent Government Institutions, the Bonn Agreement was the initial series of agreements intended to re-create the State of Afghanistan following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
Muḥammad Shahābuddīn Ghorī, originally called Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Ibn Sām but famously known as Muḥammad of Ghor and Muḥammad Ghorī, (1162 – 15 March 1206), was a powerful governor and general and ultimately sultan of the Ghorid dynasty, centered in modern day Afghanistan. He was the governor of Ghaznā and the surrounding area from 1173 to 1192. He was sultan from 1202 until his death in 1206.
A Persianate/Persified society is a society that is either based on, or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art, and/or identity. The term does not necessarily designate ethnic Persians, but has also been applied to those societies that may not have been ethnically Persian or Iranic, but whose linguistic, material, or artistic cultural activities were influenced by, or based on Persianate culture.
As of March 3, 2010, there have been 1,599 coalition deaths in Afghanistan as part of ongoing coalition operations since the invasion in 2001. In this total, the American figure is for deaths "In and Around Afghanistan" which, as defined by the U.S. Department of Defense, includes some deaths in Pakistan and Uzbekistan and the deaths of 11 CIA operatives. In addition to these deaths in Afghanistan, another 28 U.S.
The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established on 28 March, 2002 by UN Security Council resolution 1401. Its original mandate was to support the Bonn Agreement (December 2001); reviewed annually, this mandate has been altered over time to reflect the needs of the country and was recently extended until 23 March 2010 by resolution 1746 .
Killi Faizo is a UNHCR staging refugee camp on the Afghan-Pakistan border, in Chaman, Pakistan - two kilometres into the country. A parallel camp exists on the other side of the border. It was opened in late 2001 as a response to the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. Medical organisations such as Médecins Sans Frontières operate inside the camp. The World Food Program provides wheat flour, beans and vegetable oil for the Afghan refugees in the camp.
Greater Khorasan (also written Khorasaan, Khurasan and Khurasaan) is a modern term for a historical geographic region spanning (in clockwise order) north-eastern and east of Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, western and northern Afghanistan. The name "Khorasan" is said to derive from Middle Persian khor "sun" + ayan "out of", hence meaning "land where the sun rises". For other suggested etymologies, see Khwarezm.
The 055 Brigade (or 55th Arab Brigade) was an elite guerrilla organization sponsored and trained by Al Qaeda that was integrated into the Taliban army between 1995 and 2001. It comprised mostly foreign guerrilla fighters from the Middle-East, Central Asia and South-East Asia whom had some form of combat experience, either fighting the Soviet invasion during the 1980s or elsewhere.
Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) is the chief organisation in the awareness and removal of mines in Afghanistan. It was founded in 1990 and initially operated in the western provinces of Afghanistan, it has since branched out to the rest of the country. In early 2002 the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) responded to OMAR's request for specialist training necessary to address the new types of UXO being found in Afghanistan following coalition activity in the area.
The Kambojas were a Kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. The earliest mention of the name Kamboja is in the Vamsa Brahmana (ca. 7th century BCE). References to the Kambojas as a tribe or kingdom appear in the Mahabharata and Vedanga literature beginning in the final centuries BCE. Their Kamboja Kingdoms were located beyond Gandhara in the extreme north-west of India in Central Asia.
Zamindawar is a historical district of Afghanistan, situated on the right bank of the Helmand River to the NW. of Kandahar bordering the road which leads from Kandahar to Herat via Farah. Zamindawar was a district of hills, and of wide, well populated, and fertile valleys watered by important tributaries of the Helmand. The principal town was Musa Kala, which stands on the banks of a river of the same name, about 60 m, N. of Girishk.
The Barakzay Clan is a powerful family in Afghanistan and Baluchistan. 400 years ago a Barakzay (Barakzahi) family and its army fled Afghanistan when the Shah was replaced. They lived in a city called Sarawan in Baluchistan, Iran. They ruled the city and all Baluchistan in 1903. In 1903 Bahram Khan Barakzahi crossed the Persian army. Barham Khan defected to the Persian army, he became the national hero in Baluchistan. He ruled Baluchistan until 1919.
Jayapala Janjua Shahi, the son of Asatapala and father of Anandapal, was the first king and founder of the Hindushahi dynasty of Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan. He succeeded the last Brahman Shahi king Bhimadeva in about 964 CE, and thus began the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasties. Epithets from the Bari Kot inscriptions record his full title as "Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapala deva" the first Emperor of the Janjua Shahi phase.
The Kidarite dynasty of the "Ki" clan originated from the Uar people. As the leaders of the Hara Huna they established a Kingdom in northwestern India during the 4-5 century. They were part of the tribes known collectively as White Huns or Hephthalites.