The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (642–1187) began after the Islamic conquest of Persia was completed, when Arab Muslims defeated the Sassanid Empire at the battles of Walaja, al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. The Arabs then began to move towards the lands east of Persia and in 642 captured the city, Herat. The complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam was during the period of the Ghaznavids, in or about the 11th century.
The detailed history of Afghanistan begins around 330 BC with the arrival of Alexander the Great and his Greek army although civilization had existed on the land for thousands of years. The state of Afghanistan has been referred to by other names in the past. It is the land where many powerful kingdoms established their capitals, including the Kushan, Saffarid, Ghaznavid, Ghurid, Timurid, Mughal, Hotaki, and the Durrani Empire.
Khadamat-e Etela'at-e Dawlati (Persian 'خدمات اطلاعات دولتی'), almost always known by its acronym KHAD (or KhAD), is the main security agency and intelligence agency of Afghanistan, and also served as the secret police during the Soviet occupation. Successor to AGSA (Department for Safeguarding the Interests of Afghanistan) and KAM, KHAD was nominally part of the Afghan state, but it was firmly under the control of the Soviet KGB until 1989.
Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. Before final peace negotiations were concluded in 1921, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries.
Tora Bora, known locally as Spīn Ghar, is a cave complex situated in the White Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, in the Pachir Wa Agam District of Nangarhar province, approximately 50 km (31 mi) west of the Khyber Pass and 10 km (6.2 mi) north of the border of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan. During the US invasion of Afghanistan it was one of the strongholds of the Taliban and its Arab Al Qaeda allies.
The Hindu Kush is a 500-mile mountain range stretching between north-western Pakistan and eastern and central Afghanistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in the Chitral region of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and is a sub-range of the Himalayas. It is also calculated to be the geographic center of population of the world.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a government of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992 recognised by 8 countries. It was both ideologically close to and economically dependent on the Soviet Union, and was a major belligerent of the Afghan Civil War.
The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 .
Airyanəm Vaējah, which approximately means "expanse of the Aryans," is a reference in the Zoroastrian Avesta to one of Ahura Mazda's "sixteen perfect lands. " It is considered the best of places, but on the other hand the Vīdēvdād 1 claims that there are two months of summer there and ten of winter, and it suffers from flooding at the end of winter.
The Saka (Old Iranian Sakā; Latinized Sacae) were a Scythian tribe, rendered in Greek as Σάκαι, in Chinese as, and in Sanskrit as शक, referring to those Scythians who founded the Indo-Scythian kingdom in the 2nd century BC.
The voluntary repatriation of Afghans is governed by a tripartite accord signed in Geneva April 2002 by Iran, Afghanistan and the UNHCR. Under the program, voluntary repatriation centers were established in ten Iranian cities, such as Mashhad, Zahedan, Qom, Isfahan, Kerman, Shiraz, Yazd, Arak, and two in Tehran. The centers provide Afghan refugees with an assistance package, including a small monetary grant to facilitate their return.
The Durand Line refers to the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, which is poorly marked and approximately 2,640 kilometers (1,610 miles) long. It was established after the 1893 Durand Line Agreement between the Government of colonial British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence. It is named after Henry Mortimer Durand, the Foreign Secretary of British India at the time.
On March 27, 2003, deputy defense minister of Afghanistan general Abdul Rashid Dostum created an office for the North Zone of Afghanistan and appointed officials to it, defying interim president Hamid Karzai's orders that there be no zones in Afghanistan.
Before the 1600s and prior, the Afghans that lived in cities were subject to live under foreign rulers. Those who refused were forced to live nomadic style in isolated mountain regions where the law of a central government did not reach to them. The Afghans were pushing for the establishment of their own state but many attempts have failed. In early 1700s Afghan leaders or tribal chiefs from Kandahar began to organize themselves and for the first time they freed themselves from foreign rule.
Operation Valiant Strike was a major United States military ground operation in Afghanistan announced on March 19, 2003 that involved 2nd and 3rd battalions of 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, Romanian and Afghani troops. The combined forces moved through Kandahar and parts of Southern Afghanistan with the objective of eliminating enemy forces and weapons caches while also attempting to gather intelligence on Taliban activity in the area.
The Afghan Museum is private museum of culture and cultural history of Afghanistan, situated in the historic and picturesque Speicherstadt (warehouse district) of Hamburg, Germany. The museum's mandate is to bring the authentic and traditional aspects of Afghan culture to life.
The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the state of Afghanistan, during the rule of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan government. In 1996, the country was renamed the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan by the Taliban, after seizing control of the majority of the country.
The Afghan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program (DDR) was established by the government of Afghanistan to disarm 90,000 former combatants and integrate them into civilian life. The Canadian Government has said that the mission was completed on July 2005, although only 50,000 soldiers have been captured and integrated into civilian life. There are still an estimated 40,000 soldiers who are loyal to General Muhamod Fahim.
Kāfiristān or Kāfirstān was a historic name of Nurestan, a province in the Hindukush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan, prior to 1896. This historic region lies on, and mainly comprises, basins of the rivers Alingar, Pech (Kamah), Landai Sin, and Kunar, and the intervening mountain ranges. It is bounded by the main range of the Hindukush on the north, the city of Chitral in Pakistan to the east, the Kunar Valley in the south, and the Alishang River in the west.
The Afghan Constitution Commission (or Afghan Constitutional Commission) was established October 5, 2002 as required by the Bonn Agreement, which stipulated that a new Afghan constitution be adopted by a loya jirga. The loya jirga was required to convene within eighteen months of the establishment of Afghan Transitional Administration, which was established in June 2002. After some delay, the proposed Afghan Constitution was presented to President Hamid Karzai on November 3, 2003.
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was founded in 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan and ended with their fall from power in 2001. At the peak of their influence the Taliban never controlled the entire area of Afghanistan, as about 10% of the country in the northeast was held by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan.