The Holy Roman Empire was a highly decentralized state for most of its history, composed of hundreds of smaller states, most of which operated with some degree of independent sovereignty. Although in the earlier part of the Middle Ages, under the Salian and Hohenstaufen emperors, it was relatively centralized, as time went on the Emperor lost more and more power to the Princes. Late in the history of the Empire, in 1792, a Diet (congress or parliament) of the Empire was called.
A dynasty is a succession of people belonging to the same family, who, through various means and forms maintain power, influence or authority over the course of generations. Most commonly the term is used specifically in reference to royal houses and imperial dynasties — their authority manifests itself as the sovereign of a state or territory.
The Table of Ranks (Табель о рангах; Tabel' o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government, and court of Imperial Russia. It was introduced in 1722, during the reign of Peter the Great, while he engaged in a struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars. The Table of Ranks determined a person's position and status according to service to the Emperor rather than according to birth or seniority.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques, and is similar in many ways to the history of humanity. Background knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors have become possible through technologies which assist humans to travel to places we could not otherwise go, and probe the nature of the universe in more detail than our natural senses allow.
This a list of component units of Fighter Command. No. 10 Group RAF 1 June 1940 - 2 May 1945 No. 11 Group RAF 14 July 1936 - 31 December 1960, 1 January 1961 - 1 April 1963 No. 12 Group RAF 1 April 1937 - 31 March 1963 No. 13 Group RAF 15 March 1939 - 20 May 1946, 16 May 1955 - 31 December 1961 No. 14 Group RAF 26 June 1940 - 15 July 1943 No. 11 Sector RAF 1 April 1963 - No. 12 Sector RAF 1 April 1963 - No. 13 Sector RAF 1 April 1963 -
A number of presidential offices have existed in Germany since the abolition of the imperial monarchy in 1918. During the 1919-1933 Weimar Republic the head of state was the President of Germany. Upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg in August 1934 the office was abolished until 1945, when Karl Dönitz briefly became President. The West German constitution (Grundgesetz or Basic Law) of May 1949 created the office of President of Germany.
One of the best sources for the world of European Renaissance Humanism in the early 16th century is the correspondence of Erasmus. Among those with whom he exchanged letters are: Pope Adrian VI Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa Albert of Brandenburg Faustus Andrelinus Henricus Afinius Georg Agricola William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy - pupil of Erasmus, who called him inter nobiles doctissimus.
The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. For more information on countries with nuclear weapons, see List of countries with nuclear weapons. For more information on nuclear weapon arsenals, see List of nuclear weapons.
The "Great Escape" was a World War II mass escape from the German prisoner-of-war camp Stalag Luft III. It was the basis of The Great Escape (book), a book by Paul Brickhill describing the escape and The Great Escape (film), a film based on the book.
Below is the list of plants, listed under the section "Catalogue of the Herbs and Plants, in this Treatise, appropriated to their several PLANETS" in the 1652 medical text The English Physitian: or an Astrologo-physical Discourse of the Vulgar Herbs of This Nation by Nicholas Culpeper.