Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (25 September 1906 – 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period and one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Leon Trotsky's chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the Stalinist bureaucracy. His music was officially denounced twice, in 1936 and 1948, and was periodically banned.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili in Georgian or Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili in Russian patronymic nomenclature; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union.
Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko was a Soviet politician and the sixth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He led the Soviet Union from 13 February 1984, until his death just thirteen months later on 10 March 1985. Chernenko was also Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 11 April 1984, until his death.
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (or Beriya) was a Soviet politician, and chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus under Stalin. By the end of the Great Purge he had become deputy head and subsequently head of the NKVD and carried out a purge of the NKVD itself. Beria was most influential during and after World War II, and immediately after Stalin's death on March 5 1953, when as First Deputy Prime Minister he carried out a brief campaign of liberalization.
Major General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (born November 10, 1919 in Russia's southern Altai region) is a Russian small arms designer, most famous for designing the AK-47 assault rifle, the AKM and the AK-74.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 15, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was a Soviet politician during the Cold War era. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program, and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy.
Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (September 29, 1898–November 20, 1976) was a Ukrainian agronomist who was director of Soviet biology under Joseph Stalin. Lysenko rejected Mendelian genetics in favor of the hybridization theories of Russian horticulturist Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, and adopted them into a powerful political scientific movement termed Lysenkoism.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) led the Soviet Union during the Cold War. He served as the fourth First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, and as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, from 1960 to 1964 and 1977 to 1982. Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoe in 1906. He was employed as a metalworker in his youth; he joined Komsomol in 1922 and the Communist Party in 1931.
Lev Ivanovich Yashin (22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990) was a Russian-Soviet football goalkeeper, considered by many to be the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the game. He was known for his superior athleticism in goal, imposing stature, amazing reflex saves and inventing the idea of goalkeeper sweeping. Yashin was voted the best goalkeeper of the 20th century by the IFFHS.
Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrentyev or Lavrentiev (November 19, 1900, Kazan – October 15, 1980, Moscow) was an outstanding Soviet mathematician and hydrodynamicist. Lavrentiev was born in Kazan, where his father was an instructor at a college (he later became a professor at Kazan University, then Moscow University). Lavrentiev entered Kazan University, and, when his family moved to Moscow in 1921, he transferred to the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow University.
Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (5 August 1905 — December 9, 1970) was a Soviet aircraft designer of Armenian descent. In partnership with Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich he designed many of the famous MiG military aircraft.
Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi (Павел Восіпавіч Сухі) (July 22, 1895 – September 15, 1975) was a Belarusian Soviet aircraft constructor and designer. Sukhoi was born in Glubokoye near Vitebsk, a small village in Belarus. He went to school from 1905 to 1914 at the Gomel Gymnasium. In 1915 he went to the Imperial Moscow Technical School (today known as BMSTU).
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov was a Soviet politician and diplomat, a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin, to 1957, when he was dismissed from the Presidium (Politburo) of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev. He was a major perpetrator of the Great Terror and the principal Soviet signatory of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939 (also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) as well as post-war negotiations.
Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often transliterated Sergei Korolev),, (January 12 1907, Zhytomyr – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics. Although Korolyov was trained as an aircraft designer, his greatest strengths proved to be in design integration, organization and strategic planning.
Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter was a Soviet and Russian virtuoso pianist well known for the depth of his interpretations, virtuoso technique, and vast repertoire. He is widely considered one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.
Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov (11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was a Soviet/Russian physicist. He was born in Atherton, Queensland, to a family of Russian immigrants. He and his parents relocated to the Soviet Union in 1923. In June 1941, he started to serve in the Soviet Army. He took part in the Second World War. He was wounded twice. After his second injury in 1944, he was demobilized. Prokhorov was a physicist and professor at the Moscow State University.
Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer. During his career, he designed and oversaw the design of more than 100 types of aircraft, some of which set 78 world records. In recognition of his work, he was made an honorary member of Britain's Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova is the first woman in space, now a retired Soviet cosmonaut. Out of more than four hundred applicants and then out of five finalists, she was selected to pilot Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963 and become the first woman to fly in space. On this mission, lasting almost three days in space, she performed various tests on herself to collect data on the female body's reaction to spaceflight.