The Canadian Shield—also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien (French)—is a massive geological shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American or Laurentia craton. It is an area mainly covered by igneous rock which relates to its long volcanic history.
Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaea supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. It was located in the north after Pangaea split into two followed by Gondwanaland in the south. It included most of the landmasses which make up today's continents of the northern hemisphere, chiefly Laurentia (the name given to the North American craton), Baltica, Siberia, Kazakhstania, and the North China and East China cratons.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, Bahamas and parts of Siberia and Iceland. It extends eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Chersky Range in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust. The interior of the main continental landmass includes an extensive granitic core called a craton.
Akilia Island is an island in southwestern Greenland, about 22 kilometers south of Nuuk (Godthåb), at 63°55′59″N 51°40′01″W / 63.933°N 51.667°W / 63.933; -51.667. Akilia is the location of a rock formation that has been proposed to contain the oldest known sedimentary rocks on Earth, McGregor, VR, Mason, B (1977 Petrogenesis and geochemistry of metabasaltic and metasedimentary enclaves in the Amîtsoq gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist, v. 62, p. 887-904.
The Isua greenstone belt is an Archean greenstone belt in southwestern Greenland dated at 3.8-3.7 Ga and contains the oldest known, well preserved, metavolcanic, metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks on Earth. It consists of five tectonic domains.
The Thulean Plateau also known as the Thulean Province, was a great basaltic lava plain that existed during the Paleogene period, which possibly extended over 1,800,000 km (700,000 sq mi) in the northern Atlantic Ocean region. It is believed to have broken up during the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Remnants of this great plateau are found in northern Ireland, bits of northwestern Scotland, the Faroe Islands, bits of northwestern Iceland, eastern Greenland and western Norway.
The Kangamiut dike swarm is a 2.04 billion year old dike swarm located in the Kangerlussuaq region of western Greenland. The dikes cut Archean orthogneisses and are exposed along approximately 150 km (93 mi) of the coast and a similar distance up to the inland ice to the east, covering an area of about 18,000 km. To the north it is bounded by the paleoproterozoic Ikertôq shear zone and to the south the boundary is gradational with a gradual reduction in the density of dikes.
The Skaergaard intrusion is a layered igneous intrusion in East Greenland. It comprises various rock types including gabbro, ferrodiorite, anorthosite and granophyre. Discovered by Lawrence Wager Brooks, CK (2005) The Skaergaard intrusion: from icon to precious metal deposit. Geology Today, v. 21, p. 218-221.