This list of Anuran families shows all extant families of Anura. Anura is an order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. There are around 5,280 species currently described in the order. The living Anurans are typically divided into three suborders: Archaeobatrachia, Mesobatrachia and Neobatrachia. This classification is based on such morphological features as the number of vertebrae, the structure of the pectoral girdle, and the morphology of tadpoles.
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura (meaning "tail-less", from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin salere, "to jump"). Most frogs are characterized by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits (fingers or toes), protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Frogs are widely known as exceptional jumpers, and many of the anatomical characteristics of frogs, particularly their long, powerful legs, are adaptations to improve jumping performance.
Amplexus (Latin "embrace") is a form of pseudocopulation in which a male amphibian grasps a female with his front legs as part of the mating process. At the same time or with some time delay, he fertilizes the female eggs with fluid containing sperm. Amplexus chiefly occurs aquatically, but some more terrestrial anurans like the disc-tongued frogs perform amplexus on land.
Dramatic declines in amphibian populations, including population crashes and mass localized extinctions, have been noted since the 1980s from locations all over the world. These declines are perceived as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity, and several causes are believed to be involved, including disease, habitat destruction and modification, exploitation, pollution, pesticide use, introduced species, climate change, and increased ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B).
Archaeobatrachia is a suborder of Anura containing various primitive frogs and toads. As the name literally suggests, these are the most primitive frogs. Many of the species (28 in total) show certain physiological characteristics which are not present in other frogs and toads, thus giving rise to this group. They are largely found in Eurasia, New Zealand, the Philippines and Borneo, and are characteristically small.
Mesobatrachia is the second largest of the Anura suborders of amphibians. It contains 6 families, 20 genera and 168 species. This is, of course, not matched to the 5,047 species noted in the Neobatrachia suborder. The name suggests they are moderately old (compared to the prefixes archeo- "ancient" and neo- "new" of the other two suborders). Mesobatrachia are a relatively new group, only having been identified as such in 1993.
Neobatrachia are a suborder of the Anura, the order of frogs and toads. This suborder is the the most advanced and apomorphic of the three anuran orders alive today; hence its name, which literally means "new frogs". It is also by far the largest of the three; its more than 5,000 different species make up over 96% of all living anurans.
Grass frogs is a catch-all term for a wide range of fairly unrelated frogs. The species referred to as "grass frogs" are typically medium-sized Neobatrachia that live in or near small rivers, lakes or ponds in grassland habitat, with a greenish to brownish back that often carries yellowish or blackish stripes or dots for good camouflage. Though among their relatives there are frogs that climb well, "grass frogs" are hardly ever found to climb trees.
Glass frog (or Glassfrogs) is the common/popular name for the frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae. While the general background coloration of most glass frogs is primarily lime green, the abdominal skin of some members of this family is transparent. The internal viscera, including the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract are visible through this translucent skin, hence the common name.
The Brazilian Gold Frog (Brachycephalus didactylus), also known as Izecksohn's Toad, is the smallest frog in the Southern Hemisphere. It was previously called Psyllophryne didactyla. Adult Brazilian Gold Frogs measure to only 9.8 millimeters (⁄64 inches) in body length. Many have a beautiful golden color, for which they are named.
Ceratophrys is a genus of frogs in the family Leptodactylidae, subfamily Ceratophryinae. They are also known as South American horned frogs as well as pacman frogs due to their characteristically large mouth and abdomen, thus resembling the video game character Pac-Man.
Batrachites were gemstones, supposed to be found in frogs, to which ancient physicians and naturalists attributed the virtue of resisting poison. They resembled frogs in color. Toadstone is a similar mythical stone, supposed to be found in toads. The term batrachite is also used for a fossil batrachian.
Frogs have been used in animal tests throughout the history of biomedical science. Eighteenth-century biologist Luigi Galvani discovered the link between electricity and the nervous system through studying frogs. The African clawed frog or platanna, Xenopus laevis, was first widely used in laboratories in pregnancy assays in the first half of the 20th century.
The Dainty Green Tree Frog (Litoria gracilenta) is a tree frog native to eastern Queensland, and north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. It ranges from northern Cape York in Queensland to Gosford in New South Wales, with a small and most likely introduced population in Hornsby Heights in Sydney. It is the faunal emblem of the City of Brisbane
Lost frogs is a term given to frogs which have been, usually accidentally, outside of their original distribution. The term mainly applies to Australia, due to the large amount of frogs (up to 10,000 a year) accidentally while hiding in fruit produce, flowers and building and landscape supplies. Most of the lost frogs each year are moved from Northern Australia to the larger cities in the south. The majority of the lost frogs turn up in fruit shops and markets.
Humeral spines are ventrolateral extensions of the humeral crista ventralis. This structures are present in the humerus of some frogs. The majority of anuran species that present humeral spines are glassfrogs but humeral spines have been reported in various other species of different families of frogs, including Ceratophryidae and Hylidae. In all cases, humeral spines are present in males but not in females.
Indirana semipalmata is a species of frog found in South Asian forests. The species breeds during the monsoons and the semi-metamorphosed tadpoles are found in moist leaf litter and are capable of leaping with their hind legs.
The Seychelles islands support six species of frog. Of these, one is introduced and five are endemic. This includes two endemic genera: Mascarene frog Ptychadena mascareniensis (introduced), Seychelles tree frog Tachycnemis seychellensis and four species of the Sooglossidae. The sooglossid frogs are considered Vulnerable in the Global Amphibian Assessement due to their restricted ranges and the deterioration of their habitats caused by invasive plant species.
The Seychelles palm frog (Sooglossus pipilodryas) is so called because it is usually found hiding in the axils of palm trees. It is the most arboreal of the Sooglossidae and this makes detection difficult. As a result the palm frog is the most recent species of the family to have been discovered (in 2000). More recently it is the 7th most recent frog to be discovered.
A "flying" frog is a frog that has the ability to glide. That is, it can descend at an angle of less than 45° relative to the horizontal. Arboreal frogs (non-flying frogs) can also descend vertically, but only at angles greater than 45°, which is referred to as parachuting. Flying frogs have evolved independently among 3,400 species of frogs from both New World and Old World families and their evolution is seen as an adaptation to their life in trees, high above the ground.