Aachen is a historic spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. It is the westernmost city of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km (40 mi) west of Cologne.
A Áustria-Hungria ou Império Austro-Húngaro foi um vasto e importante Estado europeu, sucessor do Império Habsburgo. Resultou de um compromisso entre as nobrezas austríaca e húngara em 1867, e foi dissolvido em 1918, após a derrota na Primeira Guerra Mundial, conforme as exigências do Tratado de Versalhes implementadas pelos tratados de Saint-Germain e Trianon. Na altura da sua dissolução, o Império tinha uma superfície total de 677.546 km².
The Archbishopric of Riga was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See. It was established in 1186 as bishopric of Livonia, called Bishopric of Riga in 1202 and elevated to an Archbishopric in 1255.
Czechoslovakia (Československo) was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992. From 1939 to 1945 the state did not have de facto existence, due to its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, but the Czechoslovak government-in-exile nevertheless continued to exist during this time period.
The German Empire is and was the official term used to refer to Germany from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871 to 1918, when it became a German federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of Wilhelm II (28 November 1918).
East Germany was the informal Western name for the Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR (German Democratic Republic — GDR), the communist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany and in the East Berlin portion of the Allied-occupied capital city. The German Democratic Republic had an area of 107,771 km. (41,610 mi. ), bordering Czechoslovakia in the south, West Germany in the south and west, the Baltic Sea to the north, and Poland in the east.
The Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period under a Holy Roman Emperor. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was Otto I, crowned in 962. The last was Francis II, who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was officially changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .
The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland, officially known as the Republic of Poland, was the independent Polish state that existed between the two world wars: from the creation of an independent Poland in the aftermath of World War I, to the invasion of Poland in 1939 by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and the Slovak Republic, which marked the beginning of World War II.
The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (including some of Finland) under a single monarch, though intermittently and with a population less than 3,000,000.
Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the government of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP), from 1933 to 1945. Third Reich (Drittes Reich) denotes the Nazi State as the historical successor to the mediæval Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) and to the modern German Empire (1871–1918). Nazi Germany had two official names, the Deutsches Reich, from 1933 to 1943, when it became Großdeutsches Reich.
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is situated along the English Channel coast of Northern France between Brittany (to the west) and Picardy (to the east) and comprises territory in northern France and the Channel Islands. Normandy is divided between French and British sovereignty. The continental territory under French sovereignty covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France.
The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican form of government. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, c. 509 BC, and lasted over 450 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. The Roman Republic was governed by a complex constitution, which centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. The name is a translation of the Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, [sɐˈjʊs sɐˈvʲeʦkʲɪx səʦɪəlʲɪˈstʲiʨɪskʲɪx rʲɪsˈpʊblʲɪk], abbreviated СССР, SSSR. The common short name is Soviet Union, from Советский Союз, Sovetskiy Soyuz.
Serbia and Montenegro was a country in southeastern Europe, formed in 1992 from two former republics of SFR Yugoslavia: Serbia and Montenegro. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, it was founded as a federation in 1992 under the name the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia . In 2003, it was reconstituted as a state union under the name the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro .
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and an autonomous region of Italy. Minor islands around it are also considered to be part of Sicily. Throughout much of its history, Sicily has been considered a crucial strategic location due in large part to its importance for Mediterranean trade routes. The area was highly regarded as part of Magna Graecia, with Cicero describing Siracusa as the greatest and most beautiful city of all Ancient Greece.
The Abbey of Saint Gall was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe. It is located in the city of St. Gallen in present-day Switzerland. The Abbey has existed since 719 and became an independent principality during the 13 Century. It was founded by Saint Othmar on the spot where Saint Gall had erected his Hermitage. The library at the Abbey is one of the richest medieval libraries in the world. Since 1983, it has been an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term frequently encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crişana, Maramureş, and (Romanian) Banat. Transylvania was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD).
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country. It has an area of 16,171 square kilometers and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. The capital is Erfurt.
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government, named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. Its official name was still Deutsches Reich (German Empire), however. Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine River. At the end of 2004, it had 85,829 inhabitants. Established by the Celts who called it Borbetomagus, Worms today remains embattled with the cities Trier and Cologne over title of "Oldest City in Germany". Worms is the only German member in the organization Most Ancient European Towns Network.
Yugoslavia is a term that describes three political entities that existed successively on the western part of Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. The first country to be known by this name was the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which before 3 October 1929 was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Zollern, or Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Its ruling dynasty was the House of Hohenzollern, which started with Tassilo von Zolorin. The state is named after Hohenzollern Castle; its capital was Hechingen. Its coat of arms was that of the ruling house. Burchard I of Zollern was born before 1025 and died in 1061. Burchard's son was Frederick I of Zollern, born before 1055, died 1114/15 .
Sparta or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c. 650 BC, following the reforms of Lycurgus, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
The House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg-Prussia and the German Empire. The state which the cadet branch ruled was the County of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which later became a principality (Fürstentum Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen).