General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964) was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He was a highly decorated soldier of the war, receiving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines. Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
Mobutu Sésé Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997), commonly known as Mobutu or Mobutu Sésé Seko (in English), born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire from 1965 to 1997. While in office, he formed an authoritarian regime in Zaire which attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence while also maintaining an anti-communist stance.
Idi Amin Dada (c.1925 – 16 August 2003) was the military dictator and President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the King's African Rifles, in 1946, and eventually held the rank of Major General and Commander of the Ugandan Army. He took power in a military coup of January 1971, deposing Milton Obote.
Lon Nol was a Cambodian politician and soldier who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice, as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. He proclaimed himself, after a coup against Norodom Sihanouk, acting Head of State of the ill-fated Khmer Republic, and was later its President.
Hussein bin Talal was the King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, in 1952, until his death. Hussein guided his country in the context of the Cold War, and through four decades of Arab-Israeli conflict, balancing the pressures of Arab nationalism and the allure of Western-style development against the stark reality of Jordan's geographic location.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa (22 February 1921 – 3 November 1996, also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa and Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa) was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from 1 January 1966 and the Emperor of the Central African Empire from 4 December 1976 until he was overthrown on 20 September 1979.
Abdullah II bin al-Hussein is the current King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. He ascended the throne on 7 February 1999 after the death of his father King Hussein. King Abdullah is a member of the Hashemite family and is reportedly a 43rd-generation direct descendant of Muhammad. Abdullah has been married to Queen Rania of Jordan since 1993 and his mother is Princess Muna al-Hussein.
Zog I, Skanderbeg III of the Albanians (born Ahmet Muhtar Bej Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (8 October 1895 – 9 April 1961), was King of the Albanians from 1928 to 1939. He was previously Prime Minister of Albania (1922–1924) and President of Albania (1925–1928).
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] (February 1882 – 20 July 1951) عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886). He was educated in Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey and Hijaz. From 1909 to 1914, Abdullah sat in the Ottoman legislature, as deputy for Mecca, but allied with Britain during World War I.
Field Marshal Ali Abdullah Saleh, born March 21, 1942, is the current President of Yemen. He was President of the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) from 1978 to 1990 and became president of the newly united Republic of Yemen in 1990. Saleh is a Zaydi Muslim, which is commonly referred to as a "Fiver" school of Shia Islam.
Muhammad Ayub Khan, N. Pk. , H. Pk. , HJ, psc, (May 14, 1907 – April 19, 1974) was the first military ruler of Pakistan, serving as the second President of Pakistan (1958 - 1969). He became the Pakistan Army's first native Commander in Chief in 1951, and was the youngest full general and self-appointed Field Marshal in Pakistan's military history.
Fuad I (26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom formally recognized Egyptian independence in 1922.
King Tribhuhvan Bir Bikram Shah (त्रिभुवन वीर विक्रम शाह), King of Nepal (June 30, 1906 – March 13, 1955) was King of Nepal from 11 December 1911 until his death, excepting a period in 1950-51. Born in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, he ascended to the throne at the age of five, upon the death of his father, King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah, and crowned on 20 February 1913 at the Nasal Chowk, Hanuman Dhoka Palace in Kathmandu, with his mother acting as regent.
Samuel Kanyon Doe (May 6, 1951 – September 9, 1990) was the 21st President of Liberia from 1980 to 1990. His regime was characterized by ethnically-based dictatorship and the suppression of political opposition. Doe was an ethnic Krahn, part of a rural tribe in inland Liberia.
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (February 1559 - 30 April 1632), known as the Monk in Armor, was a Field Marshal who commanded the Imperial and Holy Roman Empire's forces in the Thirty Years' War. He had a string of important victories against the Bohemians, Germans and later the Danish, but was then defeated by forces led by the King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.
Ibrahim Pasha (1789 – November 10, 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. He is better known as the son of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. Ibrahim served as Regent for his father from July to November 10, 1848.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (born 7 July 1947) reigned as the final monarch of the Kingdom of Nepal. During his life, he has held the title of King twice: between 1950 and 1951, as a child when his grandfather Tribhuvan was forced into exile in India; and from 2001 to 2008, following the Nepalese royal massacre. Gyanendra's second reign ended in 2008, when the monarchy was dissolved and the Federal Republic of Nepal formed in its place.
Stepa Stepanović (born 11 March 1856, died April 29, 1929) was a field marshal of the Serbian Army who distinguished himself in Serbia's wars from 1876 to 1918. Stepa Stepanović was born in the village of Kumodraž outside of Belgrade on 11 March 1856. He joined the Serbian army in 1874, as a cadet in the artillery school. Stepanović obtained significant achievements in the war against the Turks, especially in the Battle of Adrianople in March 1913 during the First Balkan War .
Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) (also known as "Marshal Fahim") is a prominent Afghan military commander, politician and the current First Vice President since November 2009. He was the Defense Minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002 and also served as Vice President from June 2002 to December 2004.
Roberto Eduardo Viola (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. Viola appointed Lorenzo Sigaut as finance minister, and it became clear that Sigaut (and his protegé Domingo Cavallo) were looking for ways to reverse some of the economic policies of Videla's minister José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir is the current President of Sudan and the head of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when he, as a brigadier in the Sudanese army, led a group of officers in a bloodless military coup that ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. In October 2004, al-Bashir's government negotiated an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War, one of the longest-running and deadliest wars of the 20th century, by granting limited autonomy to Southern Sudan.
Talal I bin Abdullah born 26 February 1909 in Mecca, Ottoman Empire and died 7 July 1972 was King of Jordan from 20 July 1951 until forced to abdicate due to health reasons (the British claimed he suffered from schizophrenia) on 11 August 1952.