Adam Smith (baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is widely cited as the father of modern economics.
Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist and mathematician. His most important achievement was classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.
James Watt, FRS, FRSE (19 January 1736 – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both the Kingdom of Great Britain and the world.
Sir Michael Francis Atiyah, OM, FRS, FRSE (born 22 April 1929) is a Britishmathematician, and one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century. He grew up in Sudan and Egypt, and spent most of his academic life at Oxford, Cambridge, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet, popular throughout Europe during his time. Scott has been said to be particularly associated with Toryism, though several passages in Tales of a Grandfather display a liberal, progressive and Unionist outlook on Scotland's history.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (or Lord Kelvin), OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, PRSE, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Belfast-born mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second Laws of Thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.
Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin (25 March 1833 – 12 June 1885) was Professor of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, remarkable for his versatility. Known to the world as the inventor of telpherage, he was an electrician and cable engineer, a lecturer, linguist, critic, actor, dramatist and artist. His descendants include the Tory MPs Patrick, Lord Jenkin of Roding and Bernard Jenkin.
Elmer Gethin Rees, CBE, FRSE (born 1941) is a mathematician with publications in area ranging from topology, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, linear algebra and Morse theory to robotics. He currently holds the post of Director of the Heilbronn Institute for Mathematical Research, a partnership between Bristol University and the British signals intelligence agency GCHQ. Rees was born in Llandybie and grew up in Wales. He studied at St Catharine's College, Cambridge gaining a B.A.
John Playfair FRSE, FRS (10 March 1748 – 20 July 1819) was a Scottish scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is perhaps best known for his book Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (1802), which summarized the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience.
George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen KT, GCMG, FRSA, FRSE, PC (born 12 April 1946) is a British Labour politician who was the tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, between October 1999 and early January 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana in that position.
James David Forbes FRS (20 April 1809 – 31 December 1868) was a Scottish physicist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat, seismology and glaciology. Forbes was a resident of Edinburgh for most of his life, educated at the University and a professor there from 1833 until he became principal of the United College of St. Andrews in 1859.
Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 - 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, best known for the seminal energy physics textbook Treatise on Natural Philosophy, which he co-wrote with Kelvin, and his early investigations into knot theory, which contributed to the eventual formation of topology as a mathematical discipline.
Reverend John Jamieson, D.D. (3 March 1759 – 12 July 1838) was a Scottish lexicographer, son of a minister, born in Glasgow. He was educated at the University of Glasgow, and subsequently attended classes at the University of Edinburgh After six years' theological study, Jamieson was licensed to preach in 1779 and became pastor of an Anti-burgher congregation in Forfar, Angus; and in 1797 he was called to the Anti-burgher church in Nicolson Street, Edinburgh.
William John Macquorn Rankine FRS (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish engineer and physicist. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (1st Baron Kelvin), to the science of thermodynamics. Rankine developed a complete theory of the steam engine and indeed of all heat engines. His manuals of engineering science and practice were used for many decades after their publication in the 1850s and 1860s.
Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914 – September 12, 2009) was an American agronomist, humanitarian, and Nobel laureate who has been deemed the father of the Green Revolution. Borlaug was one of only six people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. He was also a recipient of the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honour. Borlaug received his Ph.D.
Crispin Wright (born 1942) is a British philosopher, who has written on neo-Fregean philosophy of mathematics, Wittgenstein's later philosophy, and on issues related to truth, realism, cognitivism, skepticism, knowledge, and objectivity. He was born in Surrey and was educated at Birkenhead School (1950–61) and at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in Moral Sciences in 1964 and taking a PhD in 1968.
Michael Victor Berry (born 14 March 1941), is a mathematical physicist at the University of Bristol. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1982 and knighted in 1996. From 2006 he has been Editor of the journal, Proceedings of the Royal Society. He is famous among other things for the Berry phase, a phenomenon observed e.g. in quantum mechanics and optics. He specialises in semiclassical physics, applied to wave phenomena in quantum mechanics and other areas such as optics.
Sir James Whyte Black, OM, FRS, FRSE, FRCP (born 14 June 1924) is a Scottish doctor and pharmacologist who invented Propranolol, synthesized Cimetidine and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988 for these discoveries.
Peter Ware Higgs, FRS, FRSE, FKC (born 29 May 1929), is an English theoretical physicist and an emeritus professor at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known for his 1960s proposal of broken symmetry in electroweak theory, explaining the origin of mass of elementary particles in general and of the W and Z bosons in particular.