List: Extinct mammals

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  • The aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius), the ancestor of domestic cattle, was a type of huge wild cattle which inhabited Europe, Asia and North Africa, but is now extinct; it survived in Europe until 1627. The aurochs was far larger than most modern domestic cattle with a shoulder height of 2 metres (6.6 ft) and weighing 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb). Domestication occurred in several parts of the world at roughly the same time, about 8,000 years ago.
  • The quagga (Equus quagga quagga) is an extinct subspecies of the Plains zebra, which was once found in great numbers in South Africa's Cape Province and the southern part of the Orange Free State. It was distinguished from other zebras by having the usual vivid marks on the front part of the body only. In the mid-section, the stripes faded and the dark, inter-stripe spaces became wider, and the rear parts were a plain brown.
  • Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is a large extinct sirenian mammal. Formerly abundant throughout the North Pacific, its range was limited to a single, isolated population on the uninhabited Commander Islands by 1741 when it was first described by Georg Wilhelm Steller, chief naturalist on an expedition led by explorer Vitus Bering. Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow moving and easily captured Steller's sea cow was hunted to extinction.
  • Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, also known as Eurasian wild horse) is an extinct subspecies of wild horse. The last individual of this subspecies died in captivity in Russia in 1909. Beginning in the 1930s, several attempts have been made to re-create the tarpan through selective breeding.
  • The Ancient Egyptian cattle Bos aegyptiacus (name not recognized by ITIS) was a domesticated form of ox of uncertain origin. The earliest evidence of Bos aegyptiacus is from the Fayum region, dating back to the 8th millennium BC. Unlike other species of ox, B. aegyptiacus did not have a hump. It had either large widespread horns, which arched first inward and then outward or shorter horns which had the same structure. According to Egyptian art, B.
  • The Sardinian Pika (Prolagus sardus) was a pika native to the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica until its extinction in the late 1700s or early 1800s. It was described by early Sardinian authors as "a giant rabbit with no tail", and it is believed that the Nuragici, the ancient peoples of Sardinia, viewed them as a delicacy. The Corsican Pika (formerly Prolagus corsicanus) is now considered to be conspecific with this species.
  • Saber-toothed cat refers to extinct subfamilies of Machairodontinae, Barbourofelidae, and Nimravidae (Feliformia) as well as two marsupial families that were found worldwide from the Eocene-Pleistocene epochs (42 mya—11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 42 million years. The Nimravidae are the oldest entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.
  • A large number of prehistoric mammals are extinct, e.g. Megafauna. See List of prehistoric mammals. This is an incomplete list of historically known extinct mammals, their dates of extinction, and former range. Mammals included are organisms which have been described by science, but which have subsequently become extinct. Many of these animals have become extinct as a result of human hunting, for food or sport, or through the destruction of habitat.
  • The Sea Mink, Neovison macrodon, is an extinct North American member of the Mustelidae family. It is the only mustelid, and one of two terrestrial mammal species in the order Carnivora to have gone extinct in historic times, along with the Falkland Islands Wolf. The body of the sea mink was significantly longer than the closely related American Mink (N. vison), and also bulkier, leading to a pelt that was almost twice the size of the other species.
  • The Caribbean Monk Seal or West Indian Monk Seal (Monachus tropicalis) is an extinct species of seal. It is the only seal ever known to be native to the Caribbean sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The last verified recorded sighting occurred in 1952 at Serranilla Bank. On June 6, 2008, after five years of futile efforts to find or confirm sightings of any Caribbean monk seals, the U.S. government announced that the species is officially extinct and the only seal to vanish due to human causes.
  • The Pyrenean Ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is an ibex, one of the two extinct subspecies of Spanish Ibex. The subspecies once ranged across the Pyrenees in France and Spain and the surrounding area, including the Basque Country, Navarre, north Aragon and north Catalonia. A few hundred years ago they were numerous, but by 1900 their numbers had fallen to less than 100.
  • The Gull Island Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus nesophilus) is a subspecies of the Meadow Vole last collected in 1897. A ground-dwelling coastal beach grass herbivore endemic to Gull Island, New York, it disappeared after habitat destruction for naval fortifications in August 1898 for the Spanish-American War. Also, feral cats were also partly responsible in its decline. It is known from fifteen specimens in Washington, D.C.
  • The Bluebuck or Blue Antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus), sometimes called Blaubok, is an extinct species of antelope, the first large African mammal to disappear in historic times. It is related to the Roan Antelope and Sable Antelope, but slightly smaller than either. It lived in the southwestern coastal region of South Africa savannahs, but was more widespread during the last Ice Age. It was probably a selective feeder, preferring high-quality grasses.
  • The small Mauritian flying fox or dark flying fox (Pteropus subniger) is an extinct species of megabat. It lived on the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in the Mascarene Islands of the Indian Ocean. It was abundant, with up to 400 sometimes crowding together at a single roost in a cave or in an ancient, hollow tree, while most other fruit bats prefer to roost in the branches of large trees.
  • The big-eared hopping mouse (Notomys macrotis) is an extinct species of mouse, which lived in the Moore River area of south-western Australia. The big-eared hopping mouse was a small, rat-sized animal resembling a tiny kangaroo. It moved by bounding upon its enlarged hind feet. Hopping mice are vulnerable to agriculture and pastoralism, as well as introduced cats and foxes. The last record dates from 19 July 1843 and was collected by John Gilbert, who was employed by John Gould.
  • The White-footed Rabbit-rat (Conilurus albipes) is an extinct species of rodent, which was originally found in woodlands from Adelaide to Sydney, but became restricted to south-eastern Australia. It was kitten-sized and was one of Australia's largest native rodents. It was nocturnal and lived among trees. It made nests filled with leaves and possibly grass in the limbs of hollow eucalyptus trees. The mother carried her young attached to her teats.
  • Gould's Mouse (Pseudomys gouldii) lived in eastern inland Australia, and was named after John Gould's wife, Elizabeth. It was slightly smaller than a black rat, and quite social, living in small family groups that sheltered by day in a nest of soft, dry grass in a burrow. It usually dug burrows at a depth of 15 cm under bushes. Gould's mouse was common and widespread before European settlement, but disappeared rapidly after the 1840s, perhaps being exterminated by cats.
  • The Large Palau Flying Fox (Pteropus pilosus) is an extinct species of middle-sized megabat from the Palau Islands in Micronesia. It had brownish fur with long, silvery hairs on its belly, and a wingspan of about 60 cm.. It probably became extinct around 1874, possibly due to overhunting. It is known from two specimens, one of which is in the Natural History Museum in London.
  • The Nendo or Santa Cruz Tube-nosed Fruit Bat (Nyctimene sanctacrucis) is an extinct megabat from the Santa Cruz Group of the Solomon Islands, near the eastern limit of the distribution of tube-nosed fruit bats. It had tube-like nostrils and had a wingspan of about 40 cm. The last record was from the island of Nendo in 1907. The only specimen was a female donated to the Australian Museum, Sydney, in 1892. It may have become extinct due to forest destruction.
  • The red gazelle (Eudorcas rufina) is an extinct species of gazelle, which lived in northern Algeria and Morocco. Some authorities (e.g. Kingdon 1997), however, consider that it was a subspecies of Red-fronted Gazelle (E. rufifrons). The red gazelle was formerly considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas before Eudorcas was elevated to genus status.
  • The Short-tailed Hopping Mouse (Notomys amplus) is an extinct species of mouse from open stony (gibber) plains with desert grasses, low shrubs and sand ridges in the area around Charlotte Waters, near Alice Springs in Central Australia. It weighed 80 grams. The last record is from June 1896. Only two complete specimens were collected, probably from Aborigines.
  • The Maclear's Rat (Rattus macleari) was a large rat which lived on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. It was abundant, with numbers running in all directions at night. It made querulous squeaks and there were frequent fights. The rats entered tents and shelters, ran over sleepers, and upset everything when they searched for food. They may have kept the Christmas Island red crabs in check.

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