Athanasius of Alexandria (c. 293 – 2 May 373), also given the titles Athanasius the Great, Pope Athanasius I of Alexandria, and Athanasius the Apostolic, was a Christian theologian, bishop of Alexandria, Church Father, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century. He is best remembered for his role in the conflict with Arius and Arianism. At the First Council of Nicaea, Athanasius argued against Arius and his doctrine that Christ is of a distinct substance from the Father.
Saint Cyril of Alexandria (c. 376 - 444) was the Pope of Alexandria from 412 to 444. He came to power when the city was at its height of influence and power within the Roman Empire. Cyril wrote extensively and was a leading protagonist in the Christological controversies of the later 4th and 5th centuries. He was a central figure in the First Council of Ephesus in 431, which led to the deposition of Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople.
A Igreja Ortodoxa Copta, de acordo com a tradição, foi estabelecida pelo apóstolo São Marcos no Egipto em meados do século I (aproximadamente no ano 60). É uma Igreja não-calcedoniana, isto é, uma Igreja cristã que não está em comunhão com a Igreja Ortodoxa nem com a Igreja Católica. É a Igreja cristã nacional do Egipto e uma das Igrejas orientais mais antigas do mundo.
Mark the Evangelist is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark, said to be the and interpreter of Saint Peter, and the follower and Apostle of Jesus Christ. According to Eusebius, Mark composed a gospel embodying what he had heard Peter preach. Tradition identifies him with John Mark mentioned as a companion of Saint Paul in Acts, who later is said to have become a disciple of Saint Peter.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (ⲘⲉⲧⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ Met Remenkēmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the seventeenth century. Egyptian began to be written using the Greek alphabet in the first century. The new writing system became the Coptic script, an adapted Greek alphabet with the addition of six to seven signs from the demotic script to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Demotic and is the first Alphabetic Script used for the Egyptian Language. There are in fact several Coptic alphabets as the Coptic writing system may vary greatly among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language.
The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt. This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year.
The following is a list of all the Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria who have led the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and have succeeded the Apostle Mark the Evangelist in the office of Bishop of Alexandria, who founded the Church in the 1st century, and therefore marked the beginning of Christianity in Africa. It is one of the five ancient patriarchates of the early Church (designated as "equals" and called the Pentarchy).
Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria (born Nazeer Gayed on 3 August 1923, in Asyut, Egypt), is the 117th Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. He is the head of The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria. A graduate of Cairo University and the Coptic Orthodox Seminary, Nazeer Gayed became a monk under the name Fr.
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the Archbishop of Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation of Pope (etymologically 'Father', like Abbot etc. ), and did so earlier than that of the Bishop of Rome. The first Bishop to be called Papas was the thirteenth Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria, Papas Heraclas.
A Copt is a native Egyptian Christian. Copts form a major ethnoreligious group that has ancient origins. Copts are Egyptians whose ancestors embraced Christianity in the first centuries after Christ. The word "Coptic" was originally used to refer to Egyptians in general, but it has undergone a semantic shift over the centuries to mean more specifically Egyptian Christian.
Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria' was Patriarch of Alexandria from 444. He was deposed by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 but was recognized as Patriarch by the Coptic Church until his death. He died in Asia Minor, on September 17, 454. He is venerated as a Saint by the Coptic and other Oriental Orthodox churches.
Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria also called Kyrillos VI, born Azer Youssef Atta (2 August 1902 – 9 March 1971), was the Pope and Patriarch of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (10 May 1959 - 9 March 1971).
Pope Demetrius of Alexandria was Patriarch of Alexandria (189–232). Sextus Julius Africanus, who visited Alexandria in the time of Demetrius, places his accession as eleventh bishop after Mark in the tenth year of Commodus; Eusebius of Caesarea's statement that it was in the tenth of Septimius Severus is a mistake. The Catholic Encyclopedia states, "Demetrius is the first Alexandrian bishop of whom anything is known.
Our Lady of Zeitoun, Also known simply as El-Zeitoun, Zeitun or rarely Our Lady of Light, was a mass Marian apparition that occurred in the Zeitoun district of Cairo, Egypt, over a period of 2–3 years beginning on April 2, 1968.
Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt from 385 to 412. He is regarded as a saint by the Coptic Orthodox Church. He was a Coptic Pope at a time of conflict between the newly dominant Christians and the pagan establishment in Alexandria, each supported by a segment of the Alexandrian populace. In 391, Theophilus discovered a hidden pagan temple.
Anianus of Alexandria was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 68 to 82, a position which preceded the Popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church and Greek Church of Alexandria. He was the ordained by successor of Saint Mark the Evangelist, and also the first convert Mark won to Christianity in the region.
Pope Avilius of Alexandria (Abilius in the West), also known as Sabellius, Milius or Melyos served as the third Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Church of Alexandria) between 83 and 95. He was enthroned during the reign of the Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus.
Pope Kedron of Alexandria, or Cerdo, served as Patriarch of Alexandria during the reign of the emperor Trajan. According to the Church historian Eusebius, he was the third bishop to occupy the see. However, if Saint Mark is considered to be the first, then Kedron would in fact be the fourth. He presided between 96 and 106. He was one of the people baptised by Saint Mark in Alexandria and was marytered on 21 Paoni, 15 June 106 AD.
Pope Primus of Alexandria served as Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Church of Alexandria) between 106 and 118. He is commemorated in the Coptic Synaxarion on the third day of Mesori.
Pope Justus of Alexandria served as Pope of Alexandria (head of the church that later divided into the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Church of Alexandria) between 118 A.D. and 135 A.D. He is regarded as a saint of the Coptic Orthodox Church. He is believed to have been baptised by Saint Mark, who appointed him as the first Dean of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. The Seat of the Pope during his papacy remained in the Saint Mark's church in Alexandria.
Pope Eumenes of Alexandria served as Pope & Patriarch of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Church of Alexandria) between 131 and 141. He took over from Justus as the second Dean of The Catechetical School of Alexandria (also known as the Theological School of Alexandria). He then became Pope after Pope Justus's death in 131 AD. He is commemorated in the Coptic Synaxarion on the 9th day of Paopi.