The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt, or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.
The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state it is odorless. It has a white or colorless vitreous crystal, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are face-centered cubic. Potassium chloride is occasionally known as "muriate of potash," particularly when used as a fertilizer.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the formula HCl. At room temperature, it is a colorless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric humidity. Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. The formula HCl is often used to refer, somewhat misleadingly, to hydrochloric acid, an aqueous solution that can be derived from hydrogen chloride.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (see Table) is the organic compound with the formula CCl4. It was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent. It is a colourless liquid with a "sweet" smell that can be detected at low levels. Both carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloromethane are acceptable names under IUPAC nomenclature. Colloquially, it is called "carbon tet".
Ammonium chloride (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia. The aqueous ammonium chloride solution is mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is especially common on burning coal dumps (formed by condensation of coal-derived gases), but also on some volcanoes.
Chloramine (monochloramine) is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2Cl. It is a colourless liquid at room temperature, but it is usually handled as a dilute solution where it is used as a disinfectant. The term chloramine also refers to a family of organic compounds with the formulas R2NCl and RNCl2 (R is an organic group). Dichloramine, NHCl2, and nitrogen trichloride, NCl3, are also well known.
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, is a salt and the compound of calcium and chlorine. It behaves as a typical ionic halide, and is solid at room temperature. It has several common applications such as brine for refrigeration plants, ice and dust control on roads, and in concrete. The anhydrous salt is also widely used as a desiccant, where it will adsorb so much water that it will eventually dissolve in its own crystal lattice water.
Radium chloride, RaCl2, was the first radium compound to be prepared in a pure state and was the basis of Marie Curie's original separation of radium from barium. The first preparation of radium metal was by the electrolysis of a solution of radium chloride using a mercury cathode.
Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (formerly corrosive sublimate), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. This white crystalline solid is a laboratory reagent. It was formerly used more widely, however it is one of the most toxic forms of mercury because it is more soluble than most other forms in water. It is an ionic compound.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3. The colour of iron(III) chloride crystals depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is deliquescent, forming hydrated hydrogen chloride mists in moist air. It is rarely observed in its natural form, mineral molysite, known mainly from some fumaroles.
Benzalkonium chloride, also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides of various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths. This product is a nitrogenous cationic surface-acting agent belonging to the quaternary ammonium group. It has three main categories of use; as a biocide, a cationic surfactant and phase transfer agent in the chemical industry.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compounds with the formulas MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. Magnesium chloride as the natural mineral bischofite is also extracted (solution mining) out of ancient seabeds, for example the Zechstein seabed in NW Europe or the Permian Period seabed in the central parts of the US.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compound with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white and highly soluble in water. ZnCl2 itself is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Samples should therefore be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis.
Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)m. It is used in deodorants and antiperspirants and as a flocculant in water purification. In water purification, where it is usually called polyaluminium chloride, this compound is preferred in some cases because the pH value can be varied according to the exact values chosen for the subscripts n and m in the pattern formula.
Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is an unusual example of a metal halide that is highly volatile. Upon contact with humid air, it forms spectacular opaque clouds of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). An alterntive IUPAC name is tetrachlorotitanium.
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, trichlorine nitride (wrong in nomenclature of binary compounds; Nitrogen trichloride is a sound name following the rules of systematic nomenclature) is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. This yellow, oily, pungent-smelling liquid is most commonly encountered as a byproduct of chemical reactions between ammonia-derivatives and chlorine (for example, in swimming pools between disinfecting chlorine and urea in urine from bathers).
Barium chloride is the ionic chemical compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most important water-soluble salts of barium. Like other barium salts, it is toxic and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl and Pb). Upon illumination or heating, silver chloride converts to silver (and chlorine), which is signalled by greyish or purplish coloration to some samples. AgCl occurs naturally as a mineral chlorargyrite.
Cyanogen chloride is an extremely toxic chemical compound with the formula CNCl. This linear, triatomic pseudohalogen is an easily condensed colorless gas. More commonly encountered in the laboratory is the related compound cyanogen bromide, a room temperature solid, and is widely used in biochemical analysis and preparation.
Lead(II) chloride has the formula PbCl2. It is also known as lead chloride, lead dichloride, and plumbous chloride. PbCl2 is one of the most important lead-based reagents. PbCl2 also occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite.
Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is a white hygroscopic solid; It rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hydrate which appears to be of variable composition, though the heptahydrate CeCl3.7 H2O is known. It is highly soluble in water, and (when anhydrous) it is soluble in ethanol and acetone.
Praseodymium(III) chloride (PrCl3), also known as praseodymium trichloride, is a compound of praseodymium and chlorine. It is a blue-green solid which rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a light green heptahydrate.
Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process.