Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is prejudice against or hostility towards Jews, often rooted in hatred of their ethnic background, culture, or religion. In its extreme form, it "attributes to the Jews an exceptional position among all other civilisations, defames them as an inferior group and denies their being part of the nation[s]" in which they reside.
Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Unlike his father, liberal-leaning Alexander II, Alexander III is considered by historians to have been a repressive and reactionary tsar.
Antisemitism in the Arab world refers to discrimination against Jews. While Arabs are also a Semitic people, the modern meaning of the English term "antisemitism" refers exclusively to discrimination against Jews. Arab antisemitism is believed to have expanded since the 19th century. Jews, like other minority groups within the Muslim world, were subject to various restrictions long before that.
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. He was a prolific inventor and was awarded 161 U.S. patents. As owner of the Ford Motor Company he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was considered one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. Himmler served as Chief of the German Police and Minister of the Interior. As Reichsführer-SS, he oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo.
Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. As one of German dictator Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devout followers, he was known for his zealous oratory and anti-Semitism. He was the chief architect of the Kristallnacht attack on the German Jews, which historians consider to be the commencement of the Nazi violence culminating in the Holocaust. Goebbels earned a Ph.D.
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as The Klan, is the name of several past and present far right hate groups in the United States whose avowed purpose is to protect the rights and further the interests of White Americans of Protestant faith by violence and intimidation. The first such organizations originated in the Southern states and eventually grew to national scope. They developed iconic white costumes consisting of robes, masks, and conical hats.
Matthew F. Hale (born July 27, 1971), more commonly known as Matt Hale, was the third Pontifex Maximus (leader) of the white separatist religion, Creativity, and the founder of the group formerly known as the World Church of the Creator and now known as The Creativity Movement. The organization's headquarters were based in East Peoria, Illinois.
Nicholas II (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Czar of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.
Racial segregation is the separation of different racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a washroom, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. Segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist through social norms.
The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598. Classified as a comedy in the First Folio, and while it shares certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, the play is perhaps more remembered for its dramatic scenes, and is best known for Shylock and the 'pound of flesh'. The play's antisemitic overtones can be troubling to modern sensibilities.
Gentleman's Agreement is a 1947 drama film about a journalist who goes undercover as a Jew to research antisemitism in New York City and the affluent community of Darien, Connecticut. The movie was controversial in its time, as was a similar film on the same subject, Crossfire, which was also released the same year and also nominated for a Best Picture Oscar. Gentleman's Agreement was based on Laura Z. Hobson's 1947 novel of the same name.
Crossfire is a film noir drama film which deals with the theme of anti-Semitism, as did that year's Academy Award for Best Picture winner, Gentleman's Agreement. The film was directed by Edward Dmytryk and the screenplay was written by John Paxton, based on the novel The Brick Foxhole by screenwriter and director Richard Brooks. The film features Robert Mitchum, Robert Young, Robert Ryan and Gloria Grahame.
Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. Passed by a vote of 2,221 to 88 of the assembled bishops, this declaration was promulgated on October 28, 1965, by Pope Paul VI. The first draft, entitled "Decree on the Jews", was completed in November 1961, approximately fourteen months after Cardinal Bea was commissioned by Pope John XXIII.
Dr. Alfred Rosenberg Ph. D (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several important posts in the Nazi government. He is considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art.
William Luther Pierce III (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. First educated as a physicist, he later worked with George Lincoln Rockwell, the founder of the American Nazi Party.
Holocaust denial consists of claims that the genocide of Jews during World War II—usually referred to as the Holocaust—did not occur at all, or that it did not happen in the manner or to the extent historically recognized.
Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Hassan Yassin (1937 – 22 March 2004) was a founder of Hamas, an Islamist Palestinian paramilitary organization and political party. Yassin also served as the spiritual leader of the organization.
The master race was a concept adopted as Nazi ideology which holds that the Aryan Races (including the Nordic peoples), one of the branches of what in the late-19th and early-20th century was called the Aryan race, represent an ideal and "pure race".
Israel Shahak was a Polish-born Israeli professor of chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, known especially as a radical political thinker, author, and civil rights activist. Between 1970-1990, he was president of the Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights and was an outspoken critic of the Israeli government. Shahak's writings on Judaism have been a source of widespread controversy.
Miscegenation (Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, and procreation. The term "miscegenation" has been used since the nineteenth century to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sex, and more generally to the process of racial admixture, which has taken place since ancient history but has become more global through European colonialism since the Age of Discovery.
Ernst Christof Friedrich Zündel (born April 24, 1939) is a German neo-Nazi, Holocaust denier and pamphleteer who was jailed several times in Canada for publishing literature which "is likely to incite hatred against an identifiable group" and for being a threat to national security, in the United States for overstaying his visa, and in Germany for charges of "inciting racial hatred. " He lived in Canada from 1958 to 2000.
"Das Judenthum in der Musik" (German, "Jewishness in Music", but normally translated Judaism in Music), (in German spelled after its first publication ‘Judentum’) is an essay by Richard Wagner, attacking Jews in general and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn in particular, which was published under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (NZM) of Leipzig in September 1850. It was reissued in a greatly expanded version under Wagner’s name in 1869.
Marranos or secret Jews (also known as Anusim) were Sephardic Jews (Jews resident in the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt Christianity under threat of expulsion but who continued to practice Judaism secretly, thus preserving their Jewish identity. The term in Spanish meant pigs; it stemmed from the ritual prohibition against eating pork, a prohibition practiced by both Jews and Muslims. In Spanish, the term marrano acquired the meaning of "swine" or "filthy".