Egyptian is the indigenous language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known. Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic. The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (ⲘⲉⲧⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ Met Remenkēmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the seventeenth century. Egyptian began to be written using the Greek alphabet in the first century. The new writing system became the Coptic script, an adapted Greek alphabet with the addition of six to seven signs from the demotic script to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Demotic and is the first Alphabetic Script used for the Egyptian Language. There are in fact several Coptic alphabets as the Coptic writing system may vary greatly among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language.
Hieratic is a cursive writing system used in pharaonic Egypt that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related. It was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs.
In the field of Egyptology, transliteration is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and demotic counterparts. This process facilitates the publication of texts where the inclusion of photographs or drawings of an actual Egyptian document is impractical. It should be emphasised that transliteration is not the same as transcription.
Old Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken from 2600 BC to 2000 BC during the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. The Pyramid Texts are the largest body of literature written in this phase of the language. Tomb walls of elite Egyptians from this period bear autobiographical writings representing Old Egyptian. One of its distinguishing characteristics is the tripling of ideograms, phonograms, and determinatives to indicate the plural.
The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and also acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch (sometimes it even changed during the reign). The full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom but remained in use as late as the Roman Empire.
Demotic refers to either the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, or the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts. By convention, the word "Demotic" is capitalized in order to distinguish it from demotic Greek.
Archaic Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken during the Early Dynastic Period, which lasted up to about 2600 BC. The first known inscriptions in Archaic Egyptian date from around 3400 BC.
Middle Egyptian is the typical form of the Egyptian written from 2000 BC to 1300 BC. Although evolving into Late Egyptian from the 14th century, Middle Egyptian remained in use as literary standard language until the 4th century AD. As such, it is the classical variant of Egyptian that historically attracted most attention from Egyptology. Whilst most Middle Egyptian is seen written on monuments by Hieroglyphs, it is also written using a cursive variant, and the related Hieratic.
Itny is one possible vocalization of the Egyptian word Itn, often vocalized as Aten or Aton. Its meaning is often rendered "disk," but "orb" or "sphere" would be more accurate, judging from the three-dimensional high-relief depictions in Egyptian inscriptions.
This biography of a living person does not cite any references or sources. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living people that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately. Rodolphe Kasser (born January 14, 1927), philologist and archaeologist, is a Coptic scholar. Often called "Rudolf", he is a Swiss national and expert in translation of ancient Coptic language manuscripts.
The Onomasticon of Amenope is an Egyptian document from the late 20th Dynasty to 22nd Dynasty, a compilation belonging to a tradition begun in the Middle Kingdom, and which includes the Ramesseum Onomasticon dating from the late Middle Kingdom. It is an administrative/literary categorization of 610 entities organized hierarchically, rather than a list of words. It is known from 10 fragments including versions on papyrus, board, leather, and pottery.
Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom around the Amarna period. Texts written wholly in Late Egyptian date to the Ramesside Period and later. Late Egyptian succeeded but did not fully supplant Middle Egyptian as a literary language.
The native writing systems of Ancient Egypt used to record the Egyptian language include both the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic from Protodynastic times, the 13th century BC cursive variants of the hieroglyphs which became popular, then the latest Demotic script developed from Hieratic, from the 7th century BC onward. Most surviving texts in the Egyptian language are primarily written in the hieroglyphic script.
Cursive hieroglyphs are a variety of Egyptian hieroglyphs commonly used for religious documents written on papyrus, such as the Book of the Dead. It was particularly common during the Ramesside Period and many famous documents, such as the Papyrus of Ani, utilize it. It was also employed on wood for religious literature such as the Coffin Texts. Cursive hieroglyphs should not be confused with hieratic.
In Ancient Egyptian texts, Two Ladies is a religious euphemism for Wadjet and Nekhbet, the deities who were the patrons of the Ancient Egyptians and worshiped by all after the unification of its two parts, Lower Egypt, and Upper Egypt. When the two parts of Egypt were joined together, there was no merger of these deities as often occurred with similar deities from various regions and cities.
The Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache was a project by Adolf Erman and Hermann Grapow to publish a comprehensive dictionary of Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian and the hieroglyphic inscriptions of the Greco-Roman period. Undertaken from 1897 to 1961, the project centered mainly at the former Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and was therefore also known as the "Berlin Dictionary". With about 16,000 words it provides the most complete printed dictionary of Egyptian to date.