Albert Einstein (14 March 1879–18 April 1955) was a German-born Swiss-American theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. He is often regarded as the father of modern physics. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale. This state of matter was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein in 1924–25.
Einsteinium is a metallic synthetic element. On the periodic table, it is represented by the symbol Es and atomic number 99. It is the seventh transuranic element, and an actinide. It was named in honor of Albert Einstein. Its position on the periodic table indicates that its chemical and physical properties are similar to other metals. Though only small amounts have been made, it has been determined to be silver-colored.
In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox (or Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox) is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities and the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory. Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen introduced the thought experiment in a 1935 paper to argue that quantum mechanics is not a complete physical theory. According to its authors the EPR experiment yields a dichotomy.
This effect is called gravitational redshift and other spectral lines found in the light will also be shifted towards the longer wavelength, or "red," end of the spectrum. This shift can be observed along the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Light that has passed "downhill" into a region of stronger gravity shows a corresponding increase in energy, and is said to be gravitationally blueshifted.
The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from matter (metals and non-metallic solids, liquids or gases) as a consequence of their absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength, such as visible or ultraviolet light. Electrons emitted in this manner may be referred to as "photoelectrons".
In physics, the twin paradox is a thought experiment in special relativity, in which a twin makes a journey into space in a high-speed rocket and returns home to find he has aged less than his identical twin who stayed on Earth. This result appears puzzling because each twin sees the other twin as traveling, and so, according to the theory of special relativity, paradoxically each should find the other to have aged more slowly.
Donnie Darko is a 2001 American science fiction film written and directed by Richard Kelly. The film stars Jake Gyllenhaal, Drew Barrymore, Patrick Swayze, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Noah Wyle, Jena Malone, and Mary McDonnell, and depicts the reality-bending adventures of the title character as he seeks the meaning and significance behind his troubling Doomsday-related visions. The film was initially slated for a direct-to-video release before being picked up by Newmarket Films.
In statistical mechanics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium.
In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention useful when dealing with coordinate formulae. It was introduced by Albert Einstein in 1916. According to this convention, when an index variable appears twice in a single term, once in an upper (superscript) and once in a lower (subscript) position, it implies that we are summing over all of its possible values.
The Albert Einstein World Award for Science is a yearly award given by the World Cultural Council "as a means of recognition, and as an incentive to scientific and technological research and development", with special consideration for researches which "have brought true benefit and well being to mankind". The award has been named after Albert Einstein and includes a diploma, a commemorative medal, and $10,000.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content. In this concept the total internal energy E of a body at rest is equal to the product of its rest mass m and a suitable conversion factor to transform from to . If the body is not stationary relative to the observer then account must be made for relativistic effects where m is given by the relativistic mass and E the relativistic energy of the body.
The Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einstein's equations are a set of ten equations in Einstein's theory of general relativity which describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy. First published by Albert Einstein in 1915 as a tensor equation, the EFE equate spacetime curvature (expressed by the Einstein tensor) with the energy and momentum within that spacetime (expressed by the stress-energy tensor).
An einstein is a unit used in irradiance and in photochemistry. One einstein is defined as one mole of photons, regardless of their frequency. Therefore, the number of photons in an einstein is Avogadro's number, 6.02×10. Irradiance might be measured in einsteins per square metre per second, if the frequency is well defined, as for a monochromatic source.
The Hafele–Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. In October of 1971, Joseph C. Hafele and Richard E. Keating took four caesium-beam atomic clocks aboard commercial airliners and flew twice around the world, first eastward, then westward, and compared the clocks against those of the United States Naval Observatory.
The year 2005 has been named the World Year of Physics in recognition of the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's "Miracle Year," in which he published four landmark papers, and the subsequent advances in the field of physics.
In observational astronomy an Einstein ring is the deformation of the light from a source into a ring through gravitational lensing of the source's light by an object with an extremely large mass (such as another galaxy, or a black hole). This occurs when the source, lens and observer are all aligned. The first complete Einstein ring, designated B1938+666, was discovered by collaboration between astronomers at the University of Manchester and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope in 1998.
The Einstein-Szilard or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts and requires only a heat source to operate. It was jointly invented in 1926 by Albert Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd and patented in the US on November 11, 1930. This is an alternative design from the original invention of 1922 by the Swedish inventors Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters.
In differential geometry and mathematical physics, an Einstein manifold is a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold whose Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric. They are named after Albert Einstein because this condition is equivalent to saying that the metric is a solution of the vacuum Einstein equations, although the dimension, as well as the signature, of the metric can be arbitrary, unlike the four dimensional Lorentzian manifolds usually studied in general relativity.
The Einstein–Hilbert action (also referred to as Hilbert action) in general relativity is the action that yields the Einstein's field equations through the principle of least action. With the (+ − − −) metric signature the action is given as where is the determinant of the metric tensor, is the Ricci scalar, and, where is the Newton's gravitational constant and is the speed of light in vacuum. The integral is taken over the whole spacetime. The action was first proposed by David Hilbert in 1915.
In the physics of general relativity, the equivalence principle refers to several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's assertion that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is actually the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
The Bohr–Einstein debates is a popular name given to a series of public disputes between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr about quantum physics. These two men, along with Max Planck were the founders of the original quantum theory. Their "debates" are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science.
2001 Einstein is an inner main belt asteroid discovered on March 5, 1973. It is a member of the Hungaria family. It is named in honour of the German-American physicist and Nobelist Albert Einstein. Arthur C. Clarke joked in the postscript of his novel ' that he was hoping asteroid 2001 would be named after him, but it was named for Einstein first. Asteroid 3001 was named 3001 Michelangelo.