African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. In the United States, the terms are generally used for Americans with at least partial Sub-Saharan African ancestry.
Nigger is a noun in the English language, most notable for its usage in a pejorative context to refer to black people, and also as an informal slang term, among other contexts. It is a common ethnic slur. The word originated as a term used in a neutral context to refer to black people, as a variation of the Spanish/Portuguese noun negro, a descendant of the Latin adjective ', meaning the colour "black".
Blackface is theatrical makeup used in the United States and around the world, where the practice became popular during the 19th century, it became associated with certain archetypes of American racism such as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon ". Hence Blackface has become associated with racism worldwide, so that the term may be used in a broader sense to include similarly stereotyped performances even when they do not involve blackface makeup.
Black Swan Records was a United States record label founded in 1921 in Harlem, New York. It was the first widely distributed label to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. (Broome Special Phonograph Records was the first to be owned and operated by African Americans) The label name was revived in the 1990s for compact disc reissues of historic jazz and blues recordings.
Afrocentrism, Afrocentricity, or Africentrism is a world view which emphasizes the importance of African people, taken as a single group and often equated with "Black people", in culture, philosophy, and history.
African American studies is a subset of Black studies or Africana studies. It is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. Taken broadly, the field studies not only the cultures of people of African descent in the United States, but the cultures of the entire African diaspora, from the British Isles to the Caribbean.
Colored is a term once widely regarded as a description of black people and Native Americans. It should not be confused with the more recent term people of color, which attempts to describe all "non-white peoples", not just black people. Today it is generally no longer regarded as a politically correct term, however even that is debatable, due to its continued occasional appearance, most notably its use in the acronym NAACP. Carla Sims, communications director for the NAACP in Washington, D.C.
The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American religious organization founded in the early 20th-century claiming to be a sect of Islam but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. Its primary tenet was the belief that African Americans had descended from the Moors and thus were originally Islamic. Elements of major traditions combined within the organization to develop a message of personal transformation, racial pride and uplift.
Kelly Ingram Park is a four acre (16,000 m²) park located in Birmingham, Alabama. It is bounded by 16th and 17th Streets and 5th and 6th Avenues North in the Birmingham Civil Rights District. The park, just outside the doors of the 16th Street Baptist Church, served as a central staging ground for large-scale demonstrations during the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Reverends Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Black Mafia, was a Philadelphia-based organized crime syndicate whose small beginnings started from holding up crap games and dealing in the illegal drug business, was formed in September 1968 by Samuel Christian, who later adopted the name Suleiman Bey under the Nation of Islam, and was at its height of operation until about 1975.
The National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) is a collaborative organization of nine historically African American, international Greek lettered fraternities and sororities. The nine NPHC organizations are sometimes collectively referred to as the "Divine Nine. " The member/partner organizations have not formally adopted nor recommended the use of this term to describe their collaborative grouping.
In Dahomey was a landmark American musical comedy, in that it was "the first full-length musical written and played by blacks to be performed at a major Broadway house. " It featured music by Will Marion Cook, book by Jesse A. Shipp, and lyrics by Paul Laurence Dunbar. The production, produced by McVon Hurtig and Harry Seamon, was also the first to star African-Americans James Smith and George Sisay, as well as one of the leading comedians in America at that time, Bert Williams.
The Black Seminoles is a term used by modern historians for the descendants of free Africans and some runaway slaves and Gullahs who escaped from coastal South Carolina and Georgia rice plantations into the Spanish Florida wilderness beginning as early as the late 1600s. By the early 1800s, they had often formed communities near the Seminole Indians.
The Ausar Auset Society is a Pan-African religious organization founded in 1973 by Ra Un Nefer Amen. It is based in Brooklyn, New York, with chapters in several major cities in the United States as well as international chapters in places like London, England, Toronto, Canada and Bermuda, West Indies.
A lawn jockey, also commonly known as a "Yardell," is a small statue of a man in jockey clothes, intended to be placed in yards. Most today are white jockeys, but historically black jockeys were commonplace. The lawn ornament, popular in certain parts of the United States in years past, was a cast replica, usually about half-scale, of a Black man dressed in jockey's clothing and holding up one hand as though taking the reins of a horse.
Freaknik was an annual spring break meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, primarily of students from historically black colleges and universities. Begun in 1982 as a small picnic near the Atlanta University Center, it was initially sponsored by the DC Metro Club and was typically held during the third weekend in April to coincide with the schools of the Atlanta University Center's Reading Day.
Codeblack Entertainment is an American entertainment conglomerate founded and run by an African-American entrepreneur, Jeff Clanagan. Codeblack Entertainment (Codeblack) is the first independent, vertically integrated African-American-owned film studio, actively engaged in the business of feature film production, film distribution, worldwide DVD and digital assets distribution, urban marketing consulting and a production of programs for television broadcast and syndication.
The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of fourth- and eighth-grade students around the world. TIMSS was developed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) to allow participating nations to compare students' educational achievement across borders. The IEA also conducts the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS).
The Egyptian word Hotep (ḥtp) translates to roughly "to be satisfied, at peace". It is regularly found in the names of ancient Egyptian figures such as Hotepsekhemwy (ḥr ḥtp-sḫm. wj "the two powers are at peace". ), the first ruler of Egypt's Second Dynasty. It is rendered in hieroglyphs as an altar/offering table (Gardiner R4).
The education of African Americans and some other minorities lags behind those of other U.S. ethnic groups, such as European Americans and Asian Americans, as reflected by test scores, grades, urban high school graduation rates, rates of disciplinary action, and rates of conferral of undergraduate degrees. Indeed, high school graduation rates and college enrollment rates are comparable to those of whites 25 or 30 years ago.
Although a minority during the 19th and early 20th centuries, African-American organized crime first began to emerge following large scale migrations of Caribbean and African Americans to major cities of the Northeast and Midwest. In many of these newly established communities and neighborhoods criminal activities such as illegal gambling, speakeasies and bootlegging would be seen in the post-World War I and Prohibition eras.