Batumi is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. It has a population of 121,806 (2002 census). Batumi, with its large port and commercial center, is also the last stop of the Transcaucasian Railway and the Baku oil pipeline. It is situated some 20 km (12 mi) from the Turkish border, in a subtropical zone, rich in citrus fruit and tea. Industries included shipbuilding, food processing, and light manufacturing.
Adjara, officially the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, is an autonomous republic of Georgia. Adjara is located in the southwestern corner of Georgia, bordered by Turkey to the south and the eastern end of the Black Sea. Adjara is a home to the Adjar ethnic subgroup of Georgians. Adjara is also known as Ajara, Adzhara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, or as Achara. Formerly Adjara was known as Acara under Ottoman rule and Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic under the Soviet Union.
Aslan Abashidze (born Batumi, July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004. He resigned under the pressure of the central Georgian government and mass opposition rallies during the 2004 Adjara crisis, and has since lived in Moscow, Russia. On January 22, 2007, the Batumi city court found him guilty of misuse of office and embezzlement of GEL 98.2 million state funds, and sentenced him to a 15-year imprisonment in absentia.
The Choloki River in Georgia forms the border between the autonomous province of Ajaria and the province of Guria. For a time in the nineteenth century it formed the border between Turkey and Imperial Russia. During the Crimean War, Russia’s 13,000 troops consisting mainly of Georgian militias under General Lieutenant Prince Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Andronikashvili) routed Sinan Pasha’s Turkish corps of 35,000 strong on the left bank of the Choloki River on June 4, 1854.
Kobuleti is a town in Georgia's southwestern region of Ajaria. It is situated on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Kobuleti is a sea resort, visited annually by Georgians and many former Soviet Union residents. From the 17th century into the 19th, Kobuleti was a fiefdom of the Tavdgiridze family, first under the authority of the Principality of Guria, and then of the Ottoman Empire. It was known as Çürüksu during Ottoman rule.
Levan Varshalomidze (born 17 January 1972) is a Georgian politician and the current Chairman of the Government of Adjara. He became the leader of this autonomous republic in southwestern Georgia following the ouster of ruler Aslan Abashidze in May 2004. Varshalomidze was born in Batumi. He is the son of Guram Varshalomidze, a General Director of the National Oil Company of Georgia, who had chaired the Supreme Council of Adjara in the mid-1990s.
The flag of Adjara is a flag of Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara. It displays seven dark blue and white stripes, with the national flag of Georgia shown in canton. The dark blue stripes symbolize the Black Sea and the white stripes symbolize purity. The flag was adopted on 20 July 2004 by the Supreme Council of Adjara.
The Adjara crisis refers to a political crisis in Georgia’s Adjaran Autonomous Republic, then led by Aslan Abashidze, who refused to obey the central authorities after President Eduard Shevardnadze’s ousting during the Rose Revolution of November 2003. The crisis threatened to develop into military confrontation as both sides mobilized their forces at the internal border.
Shuakhevi is a small town in Georgia's autonomous region of Ajaria, 67 km east to the regional capital Batumi. Situated on the right bank of the Adjaristsqali River, it is an administrative center of Shuakhevi District, which comprises the town itself and 68 adjoining mountainous villages. The area of the district is 588 km²; population – 21,850 (est. 2002). Near the town are the ruins of a medieval fortress.
Keda is a small town in Ajaria, an autonomous republic in the southwestern Georgia, 42 km southeast to the regional capital Batumi. Keda Raion also comprises 60 villages adjoining to the town. Its area is 452 km². In 2002, its population is about 20,024. In the district are several historical monuments, particularly the medieval Orthodox churches at Makhuntseti, Zesopeli and Namonastrevi, and the bridges of Tzonarisi and Dandalo.
Sarpi is a border village on the coast of the Black Sea, on the border between Turkey and Georgia. It is inhabited by the Laz. Now the southermost place in the Autonomous Republic of Ajaria, it once was part of the Ottoman province of Lazistan. It is the main land border crossing between the two countries and a major conduit for business travel, especially for Turkish companies doing business in Batumi. Sarpi is located about 12km south of Batumi and about 20km northeast of Hopa, Turkey.
The Adjarians are an ethnographic group of Georgians that mostly live in Adjara in south-western Georgia. The Adjars are part of the Georgian people but are distinct in some cultural traits, particularly in their Muslim religious identity. The Adjars may have not been considered distinct from other Georgians until the conversion of their regional leaders to Islam after the Ottoman conquest of Adjara in 1614.
Machakheli, is a historical geographical area and long valley along the river Machakhlistskali between Turkey and Georgia. There are 18 settled villages in this valley. The area had been part of the Georgian kingdom until its fragmentation in the late 15th century. Then it passed to the semi-independent princes of Samtskhe (also known effectively as Saatabago for the rule of atabegs from the Jak'eli family), who submitted to the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II in 1479.
The Adjar ASSR, Adzhar ASSR or Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Georgian SSR, established on 16 July 1921. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 it constitutes the Autonomous Republic of Adjara of Georgia.
Batumi International Airport is an airport located 2 km (1.2 mi) south of Batumi, a city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. The airport is also 20 km (12 mi) north of Artvin, Turkey, and serves as a domestic and international airport for northeastern Turkey. Batumi is one of three international airports currently in operation in Georgia. The new airport terminal has been in operation since May 26, 2007.
Khelvachauri is a small town in Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, 8 km southeast to the regional capital Batumi. The towns of Khelvachauri and Makhinjauri, and adjoining 75 villages form Khelvachauri District bordered by the Black Sea to the west and Turkey to the south. The area of the district is 410 km; population – 90, 843. The ancient Gonio fortress is a main historical site in the district. Makhinjauri is a popular climatic spa near the town.
Khulo is a townlet in Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, 88 km east to the regional capital Batumi, in the upper valley of Adjaris-tsqali. The town and adjoining 77 villages form the mountainous Khulo District. Area – 710 km; population – 33,430 (2002). The town, formerly known as Khula, was a merchant place located on a medieval road that linked Samtskhe-Javakheti to the Black Sea coast.
The Abuserisdze were a noble family in medieval Georgia. The first known members of the family, Ioane and his son, Abuser, served loyally to King Bagrat IV (reigned 1027-1072) as hereditary holders of Artanuji and Khikhata. Abuser was also a commandant of Atskuri and Tsikhisjvari and the governor of the Armenian city of Ani. His career, as well as that of his son, Grigol, was terminated when they were taken captive by the rival Georgian warlord Liparit Baguashi in the 1040s.
Law enforcement in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, an autonomous republic of Georgia, is the responsibility of the Adjara Regional Police, who are headquartered in the capital of Batumi in new premises opened by the President Mikheil Saakashvili. They are responsible for policing a population of around 370,000 over an area of 2,900 km².
Gonio fortress, is a Roman fortification in Adjara, on the Black sea, 15 km south of Batumi, at the mouth of the Chorokhi river. The village sits 4 km north of the Turkish border. The oldest reference to the fortress is by Pliny the Elder in the Natural History (1st century AD). There is also a reference to the ancient name of the site in Appian’s Mithridatic Wars (2nd century AD). In the 2nd century AD it was a well-fortified Roman city within Colchis.
The Batumi Botanical Garden is a 111 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia. Located at the place called Mtsvane Kontskhi ("The Green Cape") on the Black Sea shore, it is one of the largest botanical gardens in the former Soviet Union. The Batumi Botanical Garden was started by the Russian botanist Andrey Nikolayevich Krasnov (1862-1914), brother of General Pyotr Krasnov, in the 1880s and officially opened on November 3, 1912.
The Yalnızçam Mountains or Arsiani Range is a mountain range in Eastern Anatolia Region, northeast Turkey, and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, southwest Georgia. The range, continuing the Lesser Caucasus to the Armenian highlands, forms the watershed between the river valleys of Çoruh/Chorokhi and Kura/Mtkvari. The highest peak is that of Yalnızçam or Arsiani (3,165 m).
Selim Khimshiashvili was one of the Great Ottoman Pashas. Ottoman Emperor appointed Selim Khimshiashvili as Pasha (Minister) of Ottoman and Russia Political Affairs on 1802. Selim was a scion of the Khimshiashvili noble family. Selim Pasha was killed in Hirhati Castle on 3 June 1815. People still remember him on each 3 June. The Selimoba public holiday is celebrated in Adjara to commemorate him.