Afonso XIII, foi rei de Espanha entre 1886 e 1931. Alfonso foi o filho póstumo do rei Afonso XII de Espanha e de Maria Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena. Foi proclamado rei na altura do seu nascimento e a sua mãe foi a regente durante a sua menoridade. Em 1902, ao completar 16 anos, foi declarado maior de idade e assumiu as funções de chefe de estado.
Benjamin Lee Whorf (April 24, 1897 in Winthrop, Massachusetts – July 26, 1941) was an American linguist. Whorf is widely known for his ideas about linguistic relativity, the hypothesis that language influences thought. An important theme in many of his publications, he has been credited as one of the fathers of this approach, often referred to as the "Sapir-Whorf hypothesis", named after him and his mentor Edward Sapir.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859–4 January 1941) was a French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century. Bergson convinced many young people through his writing that immediate experience and intuition were as important as rational and scientific thinking for understanding reality.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer and poet, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Along with Marcel Proust, Virginia Woolf, and many others, Joyce was a key figure in the development of the modernist novel. He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922).
Adeline Virginia Woolf (25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English novelist, essayist, diarist, epistler, publisher, feminist, and writer of short stories, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.
Ferdinand "Jelly Roll" Morton (September 20, 1885 – July 10, 1941) was an American ragtime and early jazz pianist, bandleader and composer. Widely recognized as a pivotal figure in early jazz, Morton claimed, in self-promotional hyperbole, to have invented jazz outright in 1902. Morton was the first serious composer of jazz, naming and popularizing the "Spanish tinge" of exotic rhythms and penning such standards as "Wolverine Blues", "Black Bottom Stomp", and "Buddy Bolden's Blues".
Sir Arthur John Evans (8 July 1851 – 11 July 1941) was a British archaeologist most famous for unearthing the palace of Knossos on the Greek island of Crete and for developing the concept of Minoan civilization from the structures and artifacts found there and elsewhere throughout eastern Mediterranean. Evans was the first to define Cretan scripts Linear A and Linear B, as well as an earlier pictographic writing.
Henri Léon Lebesgue was a French mathematician most famous for Lebesgue's theory of integration, which was a generalization of the seventeenth century concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis. His theory was published originally in his dissertation Intégrale, longueur, aire ("Integral, length, area") at the University of Nancy during 1902.
Wilhelm II (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was demonised as The Kaiser or Kaiser Bill during World War I.
Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement. After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa.
Lola Ridge (December 12, 1873- May 19, 1941) was an anarchist poet and an influential editor of avant-garde, feminist, and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences. She, along with other political poets of the early Modernist period, has been coming under increasing critical scrutiny at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Maximilian Kolbe (8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941), also known as Maksymilian or Massimiliano Maria Kolbe and "Apostle of Consecration to Mary," born as Rajmund Kolbe, was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland. He was canonized by the Catholic Church as Saint Maximilian Kolbe on 10 October 1982 by Pope John Paul II, and declared a martyr of charity.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the co-discoverers of insulin. In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Banting shared the award money with his colleague, Dr. Charles Best. The Canadian government gave him a lifetime annuity to work on his research.
Walther Hermann Nernst (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German physical chemist and physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Nernst helped establish the modern field of physical chemistry and contributed to electrochemistry, thermodynamics, solid state chemistry and photochemistry. He is also known for developing the Nernst equation.
Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson (17 February 1864 – 5 February 1941) was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. He wrote many ballads and poems about Australian life, focusing particularly on the rural and outback areas, including the district around Binalong, New South Wales where he spent much of his childhood. Paterson's more notable poems include "Waltzing Matilda", "The Man from Snowy River" and "Clancy of the Overflow".
William Jacob Baer (1860 – 1941) considered the foremost American miniature painter was born in Cincinnati, Ohio January 29, 1860 and died in New York City in 1941. Baer began his formal training as a painter and illustrator at the Munich Royal Academy in 1880. While a student at the Academy, he was awarded for medals and one of his works was purchased by the Directors, for the Academy.
Alexej Georgewitsch von Jawlensky (13 March 1864 – 15 March 1941) was a Russian expressionist painter active in Germany. He was a key member of the New Munich Artist's Association, Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) group and later the Die Blaue Vier (The Blue Four).
Frederick Griffith (c. 1879 - 1941) was a British medical officer and geneticist. In 1928, in what is today known as Griffith's experiment, he discovered what he called a transforming principle, which led to the direct discovery of how DNA works and the beginning of Molecular Genetics. All modern molecular biology has evolved from this discovery.
John Christian Watson (9 April 1867 – 18 November 1941), commonly known as Chris Watson, Australian politician, was the third Prime Minister of Australia. He was the first prime minister from the Australian Labour Party (the spelling of 'Labour' was changed to 'Labor' in 1912), and the first Labour Party prime minister in the world. He was elected to parliament at the first federal election in March 1901.
Ludwig Quidde (March 23, 1858 – March 4, 1941) was a German pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic criticism of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Quidde's long career spanned four different eras of German history: that of Bismarck (up to 1890); the Hohenzollern Empire under Wilhelm II (1888 - 1918); the Weimar Republic (1918–1933); and, finally, Nazi Germany. In 1927, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Steve Lewis (March 19, 1896 - c 1941?) was a jazz pianist and composer. Lewis was born in New Orleans. He was influenced by the piano stylings of Tony Jackson and Jelly Roll Morton, and became the primer pianist in Storyville after those two older musicians left town. When the District was closed down in 1917 he went on tour with Billy & Mary Mack's Merrymakers Review. He returned to New Orleans the following year and joined Armand J. Piron's Orchestra. Lewis was an eccentric character.