Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. Born in Kovno in the Russian Empire, Goldman emigrated to the US in 1885 and lived in New York City, where she joined the burgeoning anarchist movement.
'Leon Trotsky, born Lev Davidovich Bronstein, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. He was one of the leaders of the Russian October Revolution, second only to Vladimir Lenin. During the early days of the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov was a Soviet Russian novelist and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his novel The Master and Margarita, which The Times of London has called one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.
Sir Joseph John “J. J. ” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was a British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. He was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the electron and his work on the conduction of electricity in gases.
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (6 July 1859 - 20 May 1940) was a Swedish poet and novelist, a laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1916. He was a member of the Swedish Academy from 1912. Most of his works are passionate depictions of the Swedish character, life, and traditions, often from a patriotic point of view. He was born in Olshammar, Örebro County to a noble family.
Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was, as well, a student of orientalism.
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was a British sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. He is a controversial figure, with his well-known religious views and subject matter being seen as at odds with his sexual and paraphiliac behaviour and erotic art.
John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir GCMG GCVO CH PC (26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940) was a Scottish novelist and Unionist politician who, between 1935 and 1940, served as the 15th Governor General of Canada.
George Calvin Day (November 8, 1871 - November 3, 1940) was a United States Navy admiral whose career lasted from the 1890s until the mid-1930s. Born in 1871, Day graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1892, was promoted to Ensign in 1894, Lieutenant (junior grade) in 1899, and Lieutenant in 1901. He was Executive Officer of USS Hancock during 1907.
Johnny Dodds (April 12, 1892–August 8, 1940) was a New Orleans based jazz clarinetist and alto saxophonist, best known for his recordings under his own name and with bands such as those of Joe "King" Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Lovie Austin and Louis Armstrong. Dodds was also the older brother of drummer Warren "Baby" Dodds. The pair worked together in the New Orleans Bootblacks in 1926.
Rudolph "Rudy" Cornelius Wiedoeft (January 3, 1893 - February 18, 1940) was a U.S. saxophonist. Born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of German immigrants, at a young age Wiedoeft started playing with his family orchestra, first on violin, then on clarinet. He moved to New York City and switched to saxophone, then still an unusual instrument.
Kyösti Kallio [IPA: kyøsti kallio] (April 10, 1873 – December 19, 1940) was the fourth President of Finland (1937–1940). He was a prominent leader of the Agrarian League, and had previously been Prime Minister four times and Speaker of the Parliament six times .
George Lansbury (21 February 1859, Halesworth, Suffolk – 7 May 1940) was a British politician, socialist, Christian pacifist and newspaper editor. He was a Member of Parliament from 1910 to 1912 and from 1922 to 1940, and leader of the Labour Party from 1932 to 1935. He was a campaigner for social justice and improved living and employment conditions for the working class, especially in London's East End.
James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon PC (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He was created a baronet in 1918.
Einar Benediktsson (1864–1940) was an Icelandic poet and lawyer. Einar Benediktsson's poetry was a significant contribution in the nationlistic revival leading to Iceland's independence. To this end, he was active both in establishing Landvarnarflokkurinn in 1902 and as the editor of Iceland's first daily newspaper, Dagskrá, from 1896 to 1898. He pioneered as a strong advocate of inward foreign investment to utilize Iceland's natural resources.
Carl Bosch (27 August 1874 – 26 April 1940) was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel laureate in chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company.