Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891) was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C..
Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist and poet, whose work is often classified as part of the genre of dark romanticism. He is best known for his novel Moby-Dick and novella Billy Budd, the latter of which was published posthumously.
Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was the 15th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Abraham Lincoln from 1861–1865. He was the first Vice President from the Republican Party. Prior to his election in 1860, Hamlin served in the United States Senate, the House of Representatives, and, briefly, as the 26th Governor of Maine.
Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC (Can), (11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada and the dominant figure of Canadian Confederation. Macdonald's tenure in office spanned 18 years, making him the second longest serving Prime Minister of Canada. He is the only Canadian Prime Minister to win six majority governments.
William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Military historian B. H.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann (27 March 1809 – 11 January 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. He was born in Paris to a Protestant family from Alsace.
Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam (commonly known as Prince Napoléon) (9 September 1822 – 17 March 1891) was the second son of Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, by his wife Catherine, princess of Württemberg. He soon rendered himself popular by playing on his family ties to Napoleon I. After the French revolution of 1848 he was elected to the National Assembly as a representative of Corsica.
Louis Lucien Bonaparte (January 4, 1813 – November 3, 1891) was a French anglophile linguist, and the third son of Napoleon's second surviving brother, Lucien Bonaparte, and Lucien's second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp. He is particularly noted for his scholarly work with regard to the Basque language, his dialectical classification of which is still used today.
Pedro II (2 December, 1825 – 5 December, 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous" was the second and last Emperor of Brazil, having reigned for 58 years. His name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. When anglicised, his name would be Peter II, full name Peter of Alcantara John Charles Leopold Salvador Vivian Francis Xavier of Paula Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga.
Joseph Wolstenholme (September 30, 1829 - November 18, 1891) was an English mathematician. Wolstenholme was born in Eccles near Salford, Lancashire, England. He became a professor of mathematics at the Royal Indian Engineering College at Cooper's Hill, Egham near London from 1871 to 1889, and was the author of Mathematical problems. He was a close friend of Leslie Stephen from his undergraduate studies at Cambridge.
Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (15 January 1850 – 10 February 1891), was the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe. There are some alternative transliterations of her name. She herself used Sophie Kowalevski (or occasionally Kowalevsky), for her academic publications. After moving to Sweden, she called herself Sonya.
Ferdinand Gregorovius (January 19, 1821 – May 1, 1891) was a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Rome. He is best known for Wanderjahre in Italien, his account of the walks he took through Italy in the 1850s, and the monumental Die Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter (History of Rome in the Middle Ages), a classic for Medieval and early Renaissance history.
George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845. Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent.
François Édouard Anatole Lucas (April 4, 1842 – October 3, 1891) was a French mathematician. Lucas is known for his study of the Fibonacci sequence. The related Lucas sequence is named after him. He gave a formula for finding the n term of the Fibonacci sequence. Lucas was educated at the École Normale Supérieure. He worked in the Paris observatory and later became a professor of mathematics in Paris. In the meantime he served in the army.
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet, born in Charleville, Ardennes. As part of the decadent movement, his influence on modern literature, music and art has been enduring and pervasive. He produced his best known works while still in his late teens—Victor Hugo described him at the time as "an infant Shakespeare"—and gave up creative writing altogether before he reached 21. He remained a prolific letter-writer all his life.
Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, and entertainer, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. His successes may have made him the first "show business" millionaire. Although Barnum was also an author, publisher, philanthropist, and sometime politician, he said of himself, "I am a showman by profession...
Charles Stewart Parnell (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish Protestant landowner, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, and the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. He was one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and Great Britain and described by Prime Minister William Gladstone as the most remarkable person he had ever met.