Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy. His best-known achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian politician. He served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Lenin was elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets following the October Revolution.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered to be one of the greatest composers of the 20th century and is regarded, along with Liszt, as his country's greatest composer (Gillies 2001). Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of ethnomusicology.
Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881–January 21, 1959) was a legendary American film director and Academy Award-winning film producer in both silent and sound films. He was renowned for the flamboyance and showmanship of his movies. Among some of his most well-known films are The Ten Commandments (1956), Cleopatra (1934), and The Greatest Show on Earth (1952), which won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Crystal Catherine Eastman (June 25, 1881 – July 8, 1928) was a lawyer, antimilitarist, feminist, socialist, and journalist. She is best remembered as a leader in the fight for women's right to vote, as a co-editor of the radical arts and politics magazine The Liberator, and as a co-founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician. A pupil of Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne, Daniel Jones is considered by many to be the greatest phonetician of the early 20th century.
Irving Langmuir (31 January 1881 – 16 August 1957) was an American chemist and physicist. His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules" in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure".
Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881, Švenčionys – November 8, 1983, New York City), a rabbi, essayist and Jewish educator, was the ideologue of Reconstructionist Judaism which he founded with his son-in-law Ira Eisenstein. Kaplan was born in Švenčionys, Lithuania to Rabbi Israel and Haya (Anna) Kaplan. In 1889 he immigrated to the United States with his mother and sisters to join his father in New York who was work with the Chief Rabbi Jacob Joseph.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (May 1, 1881 – April 10, 1955) was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man. Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of Noosphere. He came into conflict with the Catholic Church and several of his books were censured. Teilhard's primary book, The Phenomenon of Man, set forth a sweeping account of the unfolding of the cosmos.
Blessed Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (25 November 1881 – 3 June 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. He called the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) but did not live to see it to completion, dying on 3 June 1963, two months after the completion of his final encyclical, Pacem in Terris.
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), his portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Raymond Mathewson Hood (March 29, 1881 – August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century architect who worked in the Art Deco style. He was born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, educated at Brown University, MIT, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. At the latter institution he met John Mead Howells, with whom Hood later partnered. Hood frequently employed architectural sculptor Rene Paul Chambellan both to create sculpture for his building and to make plasticine models of his projects.
Anna Pavlovna (Matveïevna) Pavlova (12 February 1881 –23 January 1931) was a Russian ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th century. She is widely regarded as one of the finest classical ballet dancers in history and was most noted as a Principal artist of the Imperial Russian Ballet and the Ballets Russes of Serge Diaghilev. Pavlova is most recognised for the creation of the role The Dying Swan and with her own company, would become the first ballerina to tour ballet around the world.
Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975) was an English writer whose body of work includes novels, collections of short stories, and musical theatre. Wodehouse enjoyed enormous popular success during a career of more than seventy years and his prolific writings continue to be widely read.
Lu Xun or Lu Hsün, was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936) is one of the major Chinese writers of the 20th century. Considered by many to be the founder of modern Chinese literature, he wrote in baihua (白話) (the vernacular) as well as classical Chinese. Lu Xun was a short story writer, editor, translator, critic, essayist and poet. In the 1930s he became the titular head of the Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers in Shanghai.
August Hlond (July 5, 1881 - October 22, 1948) was a Polish cardinal, who was Archbishop of Poznań and Gniezno in 1926 and primate (highest ranking church official) in Poland, Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw in 1946.
Henry Fillmore (3 December 1881 – 7 December 1956) was an American musician, composer, and publisher. A prolific composer, Fillmore wrote over 250 tunes and arranged orchestrations for hundreds more; he also published a great number of tunes under various pseudonyms. While best known for march music and screamers, he also wrote waltzes, foxtrots, hymns, novelty numbers, overtures and waltzes. James Henry Fillmore Jr. was born in Cincinnati, Ohio as the eldest of 5 children.
Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti (15 September 1881, Milan – 21 August 1947, Paris) was an Italian automobile designer and manufacturer. Ettore came from a notably artistic family with its roots in Milan. He was the elder son of Teresa Lorioli and her husband Carlo Bugatti (1856–1940), an important Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer.
Tommy Burns (June 17, 1881 – May 10, 1955), born Noah Brusso, is the only Canadian born world heavyweight champion boxer. The first to travel the globe in defending his title, Tommy made 11 title defenses despite often being the betting underdog due to his size. He changed sports forever by being the first man to allow an African American a shot at the Heavyweight crown.
Curt Sachs (June 29, 1881 – February 5, 1959) was a German-born but American-domiciled musicologist. He was one of the founders of modern organology (the study of musical instruments), and is probably best remembered today for co-authoring the Sachs-Hornbostel scheme of musical instrument classification with his fellow scholar Erich von Hornbostel. Born in Berlin, Sachs studied piano, music theory and composition as a youth in that city.
K'ung Hsiang-hsi (September 11, 1881 – August 16, 1967), often known as H. H. Kung, was a wealthy Chinese banker and politician in the early 20th century. He was the richest man in China at that time. Born in Taigu, Jinzhong, Shanxi, he was educated at Oberlin College and Yale University. Kung was an early supporter of Sun Yat-sen and later of Chiang Kai-shek.