Sir John Ambrose Fleming (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in 1904. He also invented the right-hand rule, used in mathematics and electronics. He was born the eldest of seven children of James Fleming DD (died 1879), a Congregational minister, and his wife, Mary Ann, at Lancaster, Lancashire and baptized on 11 February 1850.
Felix Christian Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician, known for his work in group theory, function theory, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory. His 1872 Erlangen Program, classifying geometries by their underlying symmetry groups, was a hugely influential synthesis of much of the mathematics of the day.
Johan August Strindberg (was a Swedish playwright and writer. He is arguably the most influential of all Swedish authors and is considered to be the "father of modern literature" in Sweden. He is one of the most influential Scandinavian authors, along with Knut Hamsun, Henrik Ibsen, Søren Kierkegaard, Hans Christian Andersen and Karen Blixen. Strindberg is known as one of the developers of modern theatre. His work is of two major literary styles, Naturalism and Expressionism.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian, and later Soviet, physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research pertaining to the digestive system. Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon of classical conditioning.
Basil Zaharoff, GCB, GBE, born Basileios Zacharias, was a Greek-Turkish-born French arms trader and financier of Greek heritage, the director and chairman of the Vickers munitions firm during World War I.
Robert Means Thompson (2 March 1849 - 5 September 1930) was a United States Navy officer. He was born in Corsica, Pennsylvania. He was appointed to the United States Naval Academy on 30 July 1864. Graduating tenth in the class of 1868, Thompson first went to sea in Contoocook in the West Indian Squadron. He later served in Franklin, Richmond, and Guard of the Mediterranean Squadron; as well as in Wachusett and at the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island.
Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), was a Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He helped with the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller.
Sir William Osler, M.D. ,C.M. , 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician. (The "o" in "Osler" is pronounced like the "o" in "go". ) He has been called one of the greatest icons of modern medicine and described as the Father of Modern Medicine. Osler was a pathologist, educator, bibliophile, historian, author, and renowned practical joker.
Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, KC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. Barton's greatest contribution to Australian history was his management of the federation movement through the 1890s. Elected at the inaugural 1901 federal election, Barton resigned from the position of Prime Minister of Australia in 1903 and became a judge of Australia's High Court.
Frances Hodgson Burnett (November 24, 1849 – October 29, 1924) was an Anglo-American playwright and author. She is best known for her children's stories, in particular The Secret Garden, A Little Princess, and Little Lord Fauntleroy.
Nosson Zvi (Nota Hirsh) Finkel (1849-1927), was born in Lithuania and died in the British Mandate of Palestine. He was an influential leader of Orthodox Judaism in Eastern Europe and founder of the Slabodka Yeshiva, in the town of Slabodka (a suburb of Kaunas). He is better known by the Yiddish appellation der Alter ("the Elder"). Many of his pupils were to become major leaders of Orthodox Judaism in the USA and Israel.
Max Simon Nordau (July 29, 1849 - January 23, 1923), born Simon Maximilian Südfeld in Pest, Hungary, was a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. He was a co-founder of the World Zionist Organization together with Theodor Herzl, and president or vice president of several Zionist congresses. As a social critic, he wrote a number of controversial books, including The Conventional Lies of Our Civilisation (1883), Degeneration (1892), and Paradoxes (1896).
James Tyler Kent, MD (born in Woodhull, New York, 1849 - died Stevensville, Montana, 1916) was an American physician and significant contributor to homeopathy. Kent's work came after that of Samuel Hahnemann. He tested, or "proved" (in the homeopathy sense) many new remedies not considered by Hahnemann, pioneered the use of highly potentized homeopathic preparation, and in 1897 published his repertory, on which much of the modern practise of homeopathy is based.
Jean Maurice Tourneux (July 12, 1849–1917), French man of letters and bibliographer, son of the artist and author JFE Tourneux, was born in Paris. He began his career as a bibliographer by collaborating in new editions of the Supercheries littéraires of Joseph Quérard and the Dictionnaire des anonymes of Antoine Barbier. His most important bibliographical work was the Bibliographie de l’histoire de Paris pendant la Révolution française (3 vols.
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (29 June 1849 - 13 March 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He served under the last two emperors of Russia. He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire.
Friedrich Wilhelm Voigt (February 13, 1849 - January 3, 1922) was a German impostor who masqueraded as a Prussian military officer in 1906 and became famous as The Captain of Köpenick (Der Hauptmann von Köpenick). In Germany Voigt is not seen as a criminal, but rather as a folk hero and a victim of official prejudice, who was caught in the paradox of not getting work without a passport, while not being able to have a passport without work.
August Teodor Palm (5 February 1849 - 14 March 1922) was a Swedish socialist activist and a key person in introducing the Social Democratic labour movement in Sweden, leading it in a reformism direction.
Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the Kaiserliche Marine from 1897 until 1916. He is considered to be the founder of the German Imperial navy.
Adrien Lachenal (19 May 1849 – 29 June 1918) was a Swiss politician. He was elected to the Federal Council of Switzerland on 15 December 1892 and handed over office on 31 December 1899. He was affiliated to the Free Democratic Party. During his time in office he held the following departments: Department of Foreign Affairs (1893–1895) Political Department as President of the Confederation (1896) Department of Trade, Industry and Agriculture (1897) Department of Home Affairs (1898–1899)
Frédéric-François-Louis Perrier (May 22, 1849 - May 16, 1913) was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council (1912-1913). As of 2009, he is the member with the shortest time in office (14 months). Perrier was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. He was the uncle of Denise and Raymonde Berthoud and was the eldest child of architect Louis-Daniel Perrier and Cécile Dardel. At the age of 19, he went to study in Stuttgart, Germany.