William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor. It is believed he Anglicised his name to Murdock when he moved to England. Murdoch was employed by the firm of Boulton and Watt and worked for them in Cornwall as a steam engine erector for ten years, spending most of the rest of his life in Birmingham. He was the inventor of gas lighting in the early 1790s and coined the term gasometer.
William 'Strata' Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map. He is known as the "Father of English Geology" for collating the geological history of England into a single record, although recognition was very slow in coming.
Edmund Henry Barker (1788 – 21 March 1839), English classical scholar, was born at Hollym in Yorkshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a scholar in 1807, but left the university without a degree, being prevented by religious scruples from taking the oath then required. He had previously obtained (in 1809) the Browne medal for Greek and Latin epigrams.
Eduard Gans (March 22, 1797 – May 5, 1839) was a German jurist. He was born in Berlin of prosperous Jewish parents. He studied law first at the Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin, then at Göttingen, and finally at Heidelberg, where he attended G. W. F. Hegel's lectures, and became thoroughly imbued with the principles of Hegel's philosophy. In 1820, after taking his doctor's degree, he returned to Berlin as a lecturer.
Frederick VI (Christiansborg, 28 January 1768 – Amalienborg, 3 December 1839) reigned as King of Denmark from 1808 to 1839, and as king of Norway from 1808 to 1814. He also served as Regent of Denmark from 1784 to 1808 under his father's name, just like his British cousin The Prince of Wales, later King George IV. His mother, Queen Caroline Mathilde, was a sister of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Mahmud II (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. He was born at Topkapi Palace, Constantinople, the son of Sultan Abdul Hamid I. His reign is notable mostly for the extensive legal and military reforms he instituted. His mother was Valide Sultan Naksh-i-Dil Haseki Sultan (there have been speculations that she was a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine, but this is now widely regarded as false; see Aimée du Buc de Rivéry).
Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky (January 12 1772 - February 23 1839) was probably the greatest of Russian reformers in the period between Peter the Great and Alexander II. A close advisor to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and later to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, he is sometimes called the father of Russian liberalism.
Georges Maurice de Guérin du Cayla (August 4, 1810 – July 19, 1839) was a French poet. Descended from a noble and rich family, he was born at the chateau of Le Cayla in Andillac, Tarn. He was educated for the church at a religious seminary at Toulouse, and then at the Collège Stanislas, Paris, after which he entered the society at La Chesnaye in Brittany, founded by Lamennais.
John Williams (1796–20 November 1839) was an English missionary, active in the South Pacific. Born near London, England, he was trained as a foundry worker and mechanic. In September 1816, the London Missionary Society commissioned him as a missionary in a service held at Surrey Chapel, London. In 1817, John Williams and his wife, Mary Chawner, voyaged to the Society Islands, a group of islands that included Tahiti, accompanied by William Ellis and his wife.
Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope (March 12, 1776 – June 23, 1839), the eldest child of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope by his first wife Lady Hester Pitt, is remembered by history as an intrepid traveller in an age when women were discouraged from being adventurous.
Joseph François Michaud (June 19, 1767 – September 30, 1839) was a French historian and publicist. He was born at Albens, Savoie, educated at Bourg-en-Bresse, and afterwards engaged in literary work at Lyon, where the French Revolution first aroused the strong dislike of revolutionary principles which manifested itself throughout the rest of his life. In 1791 he went to Paris, where, at great risk to his own safety, he took part in editing several royalist journals.
Colonel William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839) was a British military officer and first Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia. He is famous for choosing the site of the colony's capital, Adelaide and designing the layout of its streets.
Gaspard Clair François Marie Riche de Prony (July 22, 1755 - July 29, 1839) was a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on hydraulics. He was born at Chamelet, Beaujolais, France. He was Engineer-in-Chief of the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées. In 1792, de Prony began a major task of producing logarithmic and trigonometric tables, the Cadastre.
John Galt (2 May 1779 – 11 April 1839) was a Scottish novelist. Born in Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland, Galt was the son of a naval captain. When his family relocated to Malden in 1789, Galt became an apprentice and junior clerk, writing essays and stories for local journals in his spare time. He moved to London in 1804 to seek his fortune and in 1809 began studying law at Lincoln's Inn. While subsequently traveling in Europe, Galt met and befriended Lord Byron.
Philemon Wright (September 3, 1760 – June 3, 1839) was a farmer and entrepreneur who founded Wrightville, the first settlement in the National Capital Region of Canada. Wrightville later became Hull, Quebec. He was born in a Woburn, Massachusetts into a family that had been amongst the town’s founders 120 years before. Raised as a farmer in a reasonably prosperous family, and as a young man he served two years with the rebel forces in the first years of the American Revolution.
Juan Galindo (1802–1839) was a Central American explorer and army officer. He fought for Central American independence from Spain and led the charge that took the fortress at Omoa, the last Spanish stronghold in Central America. Galindo's father Philemon Galindo was a government official in Costa Rica. He was of Spanish, English and Irish descent, but the curious rumor that Juan Galindo was born in Ireland as "John Gallager" seems to have no basis.
Archibald Alison (13 November 1757, Edinburgh – 17 May 1839) was a Scottish didactic and philosophical writer. He was born to Patrick Alison, Provost of Edinburgh. After studying at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, Oxford, he took orders in the Church of England, and was appointed in 1778 to the curacy of Brancepeth, near Durham. In 1784 he married Dorothea, youngest daughter of Professor Gregory of Edinburgh.
Benjamin Lundy (January 4, 1789 – August 22, 1839) was an American Quaker abolitionist who established several anti-slavery newspapers and worked for many others. He traveled widely seeking to limit the expansion of slavery, and in seeking to establish a colony to which freed slaves might be located, outside of the United States.
Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 1st Baronet GCB (5 April 1769 – 20 September 1839) was a British naval officer. He served as Flag Captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, and commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson was shot as he paced the decks with Hardy, and as he lay dying, Nelson's famous remark of "Kiss me, Hardy" was directed at him (although these were not Nelson's last words, as is sometimes claimed).
Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos KG PC (20 March 1776 – 17 January 1839) was the son and successor of George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham and the grandson of prime minister George Grenville.