Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (July 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and military theorist. He is most notable for his military treatise Vom Kriege, translated into English as On War.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of the total reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to continental philosophy and Marxism.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the 5th President of the United States, serving two terms from 1817 to 1825. His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" – a period of relatively little partisan strife – and later by the Panic of 1819 and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory.
John Abernethy FRS (3 April 1764 – 20 April 1831) was an English surgeon, grandson of the Reverend John Abernethy. He was born in Coleman Street in the City of London, where his father was a merchant. Educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticed in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke (1745–1815), a surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London.
Marie-Sophie Germain (April 1, 1776 – June 27, 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by a gender-biased society, she gained an education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject.
Nathaniel "Nat" Turner (October 2, 1800 – November 11, 1831) was an American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 deaths among their victims, the largest number of white fatalities to occur in one uprising in the antebellum southern United States. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner's killing of whites during the uprising makes his legacy controversial.
Charles Felix (Carlo Felice Giuseppe Maria, April 6, 1765–April 27, 1831) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831. He was the eleventh child and fifth son born to Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain. His maternal grandparents were Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma. He was a younger brother of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia and Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. He was not expected to ever succeed to the throne.
Thomas Johann Seebeck (9 April 1770 – 10 December 1831) was a physicist who in 1821 discovered the thermoelectric effect. Seebeck was born in Reval to a wealthy Baltic German merchant family. He received a medical degree in 1802 from the University of Göttingen, but preferred to study physics. In 1821 he discovered the thermoelectric effect, where a junction of dissimilar metals produces an electric current when exposed to a temperature gradient.
Harman Blennerhassett (8 October 1764 – 2 February 1831) was an Irish-American lawyer, born in Castle Conway in County Kerry, Ireland to Conway Blennerhassett and Elizabeth Lacy. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1790 was called to the Irish bar. After living for several years on the continent, he married in 1796 his niece, Margaret Agnew, daughter of Robert Agnew, the lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Man.
The Rev. Robert Hall (2 May 1764 – 21 February 1831) was an English Baptist minister. He was born at Arnesby near Leicester, where his father, Robert Hall was pastor of a Baptist congregation. Robert was the youngest of a family of fourteen.
John Blenkinsop (1783–1831) was an English mining engineer and an inventor in the area of steam locomotives, who designed the first practical railway locomotive. He was born in Rothwell, near Leeds, and was apprenticed to his cousin, Thomas Barnes, the Northumberland coal viewer. From 1808 he became Agent to Charles John Brandling who owned the Middleton Colliery near Leeds.
Jedediah Strong Smith (born January 6, 1799 or June 24, 1798 — presumed date of death May 27, 1831) was a hunter, trapper, fur trader, trailblazer, and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the American West Coast and the Southwest during the nineteenth century. He was the fourth of twelve children. " Jedediah Smith's explorations were significant in opening the American West to expansion by white settlers.
Sarah Siddons (5 July 1755 – 8 June 1831) was a British actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. She was the elder sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton and Elizabeth Whitlock. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character: Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own. The Sarah Siddons Society continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award in Chicago every year to a prominant actress.
François Huber (July 2, 1750 – December 22, 1831) was a Swiss naturalist. He was born at Geneva, of a family which had already made its mark in the literary and scientific world: his great-aunt, Marie Huber, was known as a voluminous writer on religious and theological subjects, and as the translator and epitomizer of The Spectator (Amsterdam, 3 vols.
Count Johan August Sandels (August 31, 1764 in Stockholm – January 22, 1831) was a Swedish soldier and politician, being appointed Governor of Norway (Riksståthållare in Swedish, Rigsstatholder in Dano-Norwegian) 1818 and Field Marshal in 1824. He also served as acting Over-Governor of Stockholm in 1815. In the Finnish War (1808–1809) he led the Swedish troops to victory against the Russian forces, at the Battle at Virta Bridge.
Ryōkan Taigu (1758–1831) was a quiet and eccentric Sōtō Zen Buddhist monk who lived much of his life as a hermit. Ryōkan is remembered for his poetry and calligraphy, which present the essence of Zen life.
Richard Allen (February 14, 1760 – March 26, 1831) was a minister, educator, writer, and the founder in 1816 of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME), the first independent black denomination in the United States. He opened his first church in 1794 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was elected the first bishop of the AME Church. Allen had started as a Methodist preacher but wanted to establish a black congregation independent of white control.
Count Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil (1762 - February 23, 1831) (Фаддей Фёдорович Штейнгель, Faddei Fjodorovitš Šteingel) was a Baltic German-born soldier of the Russian Empire who was Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824. Steinheil was born in Haapsalu, Estonia.
For the 20th-century Belgian Byzantinologist, see Henri Grégoire (historian) Henri Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 20 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.