Thomas Reid (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796), Scottish philosopher, and a contemporary of David Hume, was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense, and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. The early part of his life was spent in Aberdeen, Scotland, where he created the 'Wise Club' (a literary-philosophical association) and graduated from the University of Aberdeen.
Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great, born 2 May 1729, reigned as Empress of Russia from 9 July 1762 until her death (17 November 1796). Under her direct auspices the Russian Empire expanded, improved its administration, and continued to modernize along Western European lines. Catherine's rule re-vitalized Russia, which grew ever stronger and became recognized as one of the great powers of Europe.
Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was a United States Army general and statesman. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him a promotion to the rank of brigadier general and the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony".
Samuel Huntington (July 16, 1731 – January 5, 1796) was a jurist, statesman, and Patriot in the American Revolution from Connecticut. As a delegate to the Continental Congress, he signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He also served as President of the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1781, chief justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court from 1784 to 1785, and the 3rd Governor of Connecticut from 1786 until his death.
Nathaniel Gorham (May 27, 1738 – June 11, 1796, his first name is sometimes spelt Nathanial) was the fourteenth President of the United States in Congress assembled, under the Articles of Confederation. He served from June 1786 to November 13, 1786. He was preceded in office by John Hancock and succeeded by Arthur St. Clair. Gorham was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.
Sir William Chambers (27 October 1723 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish architect, born in Gothenburg, Sweden, where his father was a merchant. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making several voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration. Returning to Europe, he studied architecture in Paris and spent five years in Italy. Then, in 1755, he travelled to England and established an architectural practice in London.
Guillaume Thomas Raynal (April 12, 1711 – March 6, 1796) was a French writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment. He was born at Lapanouse in Rouergue. He was educated at the Jesuit school of Pézenas, and received priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the parish of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, to which he was attached, and thenceforward he devoted himself to society and literature.
Freiherr Adolph Franz Friedrich Ludwig Knigge (16 October 1752 – 6 May 1796) was a German writer and Freemason. Knigge was born in Bredenbeck in the Electorate of Hanover as a member of the lesser nobility. He studied law from 1769 to 1772 in Göttingen where he became a member of Corps Hannovera. He was allegedly initiated into Freemasonry in 1772 in Kassel, where he held a position as Court Squire and Assessor of the War and Domains Exchequer. In 1777 he became Chamberlain at the Weimar court.
Charles Lynch (1736 – October 29, 1796) was a Virginia planter and American Revolutionary who headed an irregular court in Virginia to punish Loyalist supporters of the British during the American Revolutionary War. The terms "lynching" and "lynch law" apparently derive from his name. Lynch was born in Virginia to Quaker immigrants from Ireland. The city of Lynchburg, Virginia, was named for one of his family members, probably his brother John.
For other uses, see David Allan David Allan (13 February 1744 – 6 August 1796) was a Scottish painter, best known for historical subjects. He was born at Alloa in central Scotland. On leaving Foulis's academy of painting at Glasgow (1762), after seven years' successful study, he obtained the patronage of Lord Cathcart and of Erskine of Mar, on whose estate he had been born.
Richard Gridley (January 3, 1710 – June 21, 1796) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the son of Richard Gridley and Rebecca Scarborough. He was a soldier and engineer who served for the British Army during the French and Indian Wars and for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He married Hannah Deming 25 February 1730. They had nine children.
Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois (19 June 1749 – 8 January 1796) was a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon.
Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath KG (1734 – 1796), English politician, was the elder son of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth (1710—1751), and the great-grandnephew of Thomas Thynne (c. 1640—1714), who was created Baron Thynne and Viscount Weymouth in 1682. His mother was Louisa (d. 1736), daughter of John Carteret, 1st Earl Granville, and a descendant, of the family of Granville who held the earldom of Bath from 1661 to 1711.
John Butler (1728-1796) was a Loyalist who led an irregular unit known as Butler's Rangers on the northern frontier in the American Revolutionary War. He led Seneca and Cayuga forces in the Saratoga campaign. He later raised and commanded a regiment of rangers.
Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde (28 February 1735 – 1 January 1796) was a French musician and chemist who worked with Bezout and Lavoisier; his name is now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics. He was born in Paris, and died there. Vandermonde was a violinist, and became engaged with mathematics only around 1770.
David Rittenhouse (April 8, 1732 – June 26, 1796) was a renowned American astronomer, inventor, clockmaker, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman and public official. Rittenhouse was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the first director of the United States Mint.
Daniel Carroll (July 22, 1730 – July 5, 1796) was a politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a prominent member of one of America's great colonial families that included his cousin Charles Carroll of Carrollton who signed the Declaration of Independence, and his brother John Carroll who was the first Catholic bishop in the United States. He was one of only five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the United States.
Johann Daniel Titius (January 2, 1729 – December 11, 1796) was a German astronomer and a professor at Wittenberg. Titius was born in Konitz (Chojnice), Royal Prussia, and died in Wittenberg. He is best known for formulating the Titius-Bode law, and for using this rule to predict the existence of a celestial object at 2.8 AU from the sun.
Jean-Nicolas Stofflet (1751 – 23 February 1796) was a French leader of the Revolt in the Vendée against the First French Republic. Born in Bathelémont-lès-Bauzemont, the son of a miller, he was for long a private in the Swiss Guard, and afterwards gamekeeper to the comte de Colbert-Maulévrier, he joined the Vendéans when they rose against the Revolution to defend Roman Catholicism and Royalist principles.
David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield KT, PC (9 October 1727 – 1 September 1796), known from 1748 to 1793 as The Viscount Stormont, was a British politician. He succeeded to both the Mansfield and Stormont lines of the Murray family, inheriting two titles and two fortunes.