Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 – 27 December 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. Born at Kames House, between Eccles and Birgham, Berwickshire, and educated at home by a private tutor, he became an advocate and was one of the leaders of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1752, he was "raised to the bench", thus acquiring the title of Lord Kames. Home wrote much about the importance of property to society.
Daniel Bernoulli (Groningen, 8 February 1700 – Basel, 8 March 1782) was a Dutch-Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. Bernoulli's work is still studied at length by many schools of science throughout the world.
Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, 8th Laird of Auchinleck (1706–1782) was a judge of the supreme courts of Scotland. Boswell was the father of the author and biographer James Boswell, and grandfather of songwriter Sir Alexander Boswell. As a judge he took the courtesy title Lord Auchinleck from the name of his estate at Auchinleck House, of which he was the 8th Laird.
Richard Wilson (1 August 1714 – 15 May 1782) was a Welsh landscape painter, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. Wilson has been described as '... the most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country. ' Wilson is considered to be the father of landscape painting in Britain.
Hyder Ali was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. He is said to have induced his brother to employ a Parsi to purchase artillery and small arms from the government of Bombay Presidency, and to enrol some thirty sailors of different European nations as gunners, and is thus credited with having been "the first Indian who formed a corps of sepoys armed with firelocks and bayonets, and who had a train of artillery served by Europeans.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG, PC (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Earl Malton in 1750, was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs and served as a leading Whig grandee.
William Emerson (14 May 1701 – 20 May 1782), English mathematician, was born at Hurworth, near Darlington, where his father, Dudley Emerson, also a mathematician, taught a school. William himself had a small estate in Weardale called Castle Gate situated not far from Eastgate where he would repair to work throughout the Summer on projects as disparate as stonemasonry and watchmaking. Unsuccessful as a teacher, he devoted himself entirely to studious retirement.
Taksin (April 17, 1734 – April 7, 1782) was the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom. He is greatly revered by the Thai people for his leadership in liberating Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city Thonburi as the new capital, as the city Ayutthaya has been almost completely destroyed by the invaders.
Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio, (January 3, 1698 – April 12, 1782) was an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (May 2, 1702 – February 10, 1782) was a German theosopher. He was born at Göppingen. He studied philosophy and theology at Tübingen (1722-1728), and was impressed by the works of Jakob Böhme. On the completion of his university course, Oetinger spent some years travelling. In 1730 he visited Count Zinzendorf at Herrnhut, remaining there some months as teacher of Hebrew and Greek.
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as 'the London Bach' or 'the English Bach', due to his time spent living in the British capital. He is noted for influencing the concerto style of Mozart. Johann Christian Bach was born to Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach in Leipzig, Germany.
Richard Kempenfelt (1718 – 29 August 1782) was a British rear-admiral. He was born at Westminster. His father, a Swede, is said to have been in the service of James II, and subsequently to have entered the British army. Richard Kempenfelt joined the navy, was commissioned a lieutenant in January 1741. He saw service in the West Indies, taking part in the capture of Portobelo during the War of Jenkins' Ear.
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (was an 18th century Portuguese statesman. He was Minister of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
Colonel Charles Pinckney (March 7, 1731 or 1732 - September 22, 1782) was a prominent South Carolina lawyer and planter, and the father of Governor Charles Pinckney. He married Frances Brewton, (b. June 11, 1733) the sister of Miles Brewton, a wealthy Charleston merchant and slave trader. During the American Revolutionary War, Colonel Pinckney fled Charleston with South Carolina Governor John Rutledge, before the surrender of the city to the British.
Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709 – November 21, 1782) was a French inventor and artist with a mechanical background who is credited with creating the world's first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom.
Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (Berlin, 24 July 1720 - Svartsjö, 16 July 1782) was a Swedish Queen, Queen consort of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 as the spouse of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and queen mother of King Gustav III of Sweden and King Charles XIII of Sweden.
Friedrich Ludwig Abresch (29 December 1699, Homburg - 1782) was a Dutch philologist of German origins. Born in Homburg, the reasons that led him to move to the Netherlands are uncertain. He visited the college in Herborn and the University of Utrecht. He was a scholar of Karl Andreas Duker and Arnold Drakenborch. However he followed rather the teachings of Tiberius Hemsterhuis and engaged in Greek literature as far as his work allowed this.