Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (July 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and military theorist. He is most notable for his military treatise Vom Kriege, translated into English as On War.
John Abercrombie (10 October 1780 in Aberdeen – 14 November 1844 in Edinburgh) was a Scottish physician and philosopher. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him that after Dr James Gregory's death, he was "recognized as the first consulting physician in Scotland". The son of the Reverend George Abercrombie of Aberdeen, he was educated at the Grammar School and Marischal College, University of Aberdeen. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, and after graduating as M.D.
Nicolas Chauvin is a legendary, possibly unhistorical French soldier and patriot who is supposed to have served in the First Army of the French Republic and subsequently in La Grande Armée of Napoleon. His name is the eponym of chauvinism, a term for excessive nationalistic fervor. According to the stories that developed about him, Chauvin was born in Rochefort, around 1780. He enlisted at age 18, and served honorably and well.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.
Jean Lafitte (ca. 1776 – ca. 1823) was a pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his elder brother, Pierre, spelled their last name Laffite, but English-language documents of the time used "Lafitte," and this is the commonly seen spelling in the United States, including for places named for him. Lafitte is believed to have been born either in France or the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 or 1781 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He was the only vice-president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson also represented Kentucky in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate and began and ended his political career in the Kentucky House of Representatives. Johnson was elected to the U.S.
Alexander Mitchell, (13 April 1780 – 25 June 1868) was an Irish engineer who from 1802 was blind. He is known as the inventor of the screw-pile lighthouse. He was a native of Dublin, and received his formal education at Belfast Academy where he excelled in mathematics. Mitchell was a brickmaker in Belfast, who invented machines used in that trade, and "the screw pile" for which he gained some fame.
Dr. William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton, one of Unitarianism's leading theologians. He was known for his articulate and impassioned sermons and public speeches, and as a prominent thinker in the liberal theology of the day. Dr.
Elizabeth Fry (née Gurney) (21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845) was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. Fry was a major driving force behind new legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane, and she was supported in her efforts by the reigning monarch. Since 2002, she has been depicted on the Bank of England £5 note.
Heinrich Christian Schumacher (September 3, 1780 – December 28, 1850) was a German astronomer. He was born at Bramstedt, in Holstein. He was director of the Mannheim observatory from 1813 to 1815, and then became professor of astronomy in Copenhagen. From 1817 he directed the triangulation of Holstein, to which a few years later was added a complete geodetic survey of Denmark (finished after his death).
Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen (February 19, 1780 – June 11, 1856) was a German philologist, chiefly distinguished for his researches in Old German literature. He was born at Angermünde-Schmiedeberg in the Uckermark region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. After studying law at the University of Halle, he obtained a legal appointment in the state service at Berlin, but in 1806 resigned in order to devote himself exclusively to letters.
Philip Konrad Marheineke (May 1, 1780 - May 31, 1846), was a German Protestant church leader. He was born at Hildesheim, Hanover, and studied at the University of Göttingen. In 1805 he was appointed professor extraordinarius of philosophy at Erlangen; in 1807 he moved to Heidelberg. In 1811 he became professor ordinarius at Humboldt University, Berlin, where from 1820 he was also preacher at Trinity Church and worked with Schleiermacher.
José Cecilio del Valle (November 22, 1780 – March 2, 1834) was a leader of Central American independence and the first president of United Provinces of Central America. José Cecilio del Valle was born in Choluteca, Honduras. In his youth he moved to Guatemala City, where he later studied philosophy and law at the Universidad de San Carlos. He was admitted to the bar on September 1, 1803.
John Wilson Croker (20 December 1780 – 10 August 1857) was an Irish statesman and author. He was born at Galway, the only son of John Croker, the surveyor-general of customs and excise in Ireland. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated in 1800. Immediately afterwards he entered Lincoln's Inn, and in 1802 he was called to the Irish bar.
Clarke Abel (c. 1780 – c. 24 November 1826) was a British surgeon and naturalist. Abel accompanied Lord Amherst on his trip to China in 1816 as the expedition naturalist. As a result of this trip, he wrote and published a Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China (1818). He was the first Western scientist to report the presence of orangutan on the island of Sumatra. He went on to become the surgeon-in-chief to the governor-general of India.
William Hone (3 June 1780 – 6 November 1842) was an English writer, satirist and bookseller. His victorious court battle against government censorship in 1817 marked a turning point in the fight for British press freedom.
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne KG, PC, FRS (2 July 1780 – 31 January 1863), known as Lord Henry Petty from 1784 to 1809 and then as The Earl of Kerry to 1818, was a British statesman. In a ministerial career spanning nearly half a century he notably served as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer and was three times Lord President of the Council.
Pierre-Jean de Béranger (August 19, 1780 – July 16, 1857) was a French songwriter. He was born in Paris, and was not aristocratic, despite the use of "de" in the family name by his father, who had assumed the name of Béranger de Mersix. He was in fact descended from a country innkeeper on the one side and a tailor on the other. He had little education. From the roof of his first school he watched the storming of the Bastille.
Philippe-Paul, comte de Ségur (4 November 1780 - 25 February 1873), French general and historian, son of Louis Philippe, comte de Ségur, was born in Paris. He enlisted in the cavalry in 1800, and forthwith obtained a commission. He served with General Macdonald in the Grisons in 1800-1801, and published an account of the campaign in 1802. By the influence of Colonel Duroc (afterwards duc de Frioul) he was attached to the personal staff of Napoleon.
Jules Auguste Armand Marie, Prince de Polignac (Versailles, 14 May 1780 – Paris, 2 March 1847), was a French statesman. He played a conspicuous part in ultra-royalist reaction after the Revolution. He was appointed Prime minister by Charles X just before the 1830 July Revolution which overthrew the Bourbon Restoration.
Charles Nodier (April 29, 1780 – January 27, 1844), was a French author who introduced a younger generation of Romanticists to the conte fantastique, gothic literature, vampire tales, and the importance of dreams as part of literary creation, and whose career as a librarian is often underestimated by literary historians.