Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He is best known for his novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy; but he also published many sermons, wrote memoirs, and was involved in local politics. Sterne died in London after years of fighting consumption.
Hermann Samuel Reimarus (December 22, 1694, Hamburg – March 1, 1768, Hamburg), was a German philosopher and writer of the Enlightenment who is remembered for his Deism, the doctrine that human reason can arrive at a knowledge of God and ethics from a study of nature and our own internal reality, thus eliminating the need for religions based on revelation. He denied the reality of miracles and is credited by some with initiating historians' investigation of the historical Jesus.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (December 9, 1717 – June 8, 1768), a German art historian and archaeologist, was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology," Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history.
James Short (June 10 O.S. 1710 – June 15, 1768) was a British mathematician, optician and telescope maker. Born at Edinburgh in 1710 and originally educated for the church at the Royal High School, Short attracted the attention of Maclaurin, professor of mathematics at the university, who around 1732 gave him permission to use his rooms in the college buildings for experiments in the construction of telescopes.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (28 October 1697 – 19 April 1768) better known as Canaletto, was a Venetian painter famous for his landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching.
Lawrence Brockett (1724 – 12 July 1768) was the youngest of five sons born to Lawrence Brockett and Anne Clarke. He inherited from his parents Headlam Hall, a country house near Gainford, County Durham. The house was originally built by Henry Birkbeck, Lawrence’s maternal great great grandfather. Brockett was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating BA in 1747 and becoming a fellow of Trinity in 1749. Brockett was tutor to James Lowther (1736–1802), 1st Earl of Lonsdale.
Georg Brandt (26 June 1694 – 29 April 1768) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered cobalt (c.1735). He was the first person to discover a metal unknown in ancient times. Brandt was born in Riddarhyttan, Skinnskatteberg parish, Västmanland County to Jurgen Brandt, a mineowner and pharmacist, and Katarina Ysing. He was professor of chemistry at Uppsala University, and died in Stockholm.
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (June 1, 1693 – April 21, 1768), Grand Chancellor of Russia, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century. He was chiefly responsible for Russian foreign policy during the reign of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna.
Arthur Onslow (1 October 1691 – 17 February 1768) was an English politician. He was the elder son of Foot Onslow (died 1710) and his wife Susannah. Onslow was born in Kensington and educated at The Royal Grammar School, Guildford and Winchester College and matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford in 1708, although he took no degree. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1713, but had no great practice in law.
Nicola (Antonio) Porpora (or Niccolò Porpora) (17 August 1686 – 3 March 1768) was an Italian composer of Baroque operas and teacher of singing, whose most famous singing student was the castrato Farinelli.
George Hadley (February 12, 1685 – June 28, 1768) was an English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who proposed the atmospheric mechanism by which the Trade Winds are sustained. As a key factor in ensuring that European sailing vessels reached North American shores, understanding the Trade Winds was becoming a matter of great importance at the time.
Robert Smith (1689 – 2 February 1768) was an English mathematician and music theorist. Smith was probably born at Lea near Gainsborough, the son of the rector of Gate Burton, Lincolnshire. After attending Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Gainsborough he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1708, and becoming minor fellow in 1714, major fellow in 1715 and senior fellow in 1739, was chosen Master in 1742, in succession to Richard Bentley.
John Martyn or Joannis Martyn (12 September 1699 – 29 January 1768) was an English botanist. Martyn's is best known for his Historia Plantarum Rariorum (1728–1737), and his translation, with valuable agricultural and botanical notes, of the Eclogues (1749) and Georgics (1741) of Virgil. On resigning the botanical chair at Cambridge he presented the university with a number of his botanical specimens and books. Martyn was born in London, the son of a merchant.
Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky was a Russian poet, essayist and playwright who helped lay the foundations of classical Russian literature. Trediakovsky was a Russian literary theoretician and poet whose writings contributed to the classical foundations of Russian literature. The son of a poor priest, Trediakovsky became the first Russian not of the nobility to receive a humanistic education abroad, at the Sorbonne in Paris (1727–30) where he studied philosophy, linguistics and mathematics.
John Erskine of Carnock (see was a Scottish jurist and professor of Scottish law at the University of Edinburgh. He wrote the Principles of the Law of Scotland and the Institutes of the Law of Scotland, prominent books on Scots law.
George Dance the Elder (1695 – 8 February 1768) was an English architect of the 18th century. He served as the City of London surveyor and architect from 1735 until his death. Among his public buildings in London, the most important is the neo-Palladian Mansion House (1739–1752).