Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, heightened feeling chiming with the moral climate of the final years of the ancien régime.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was the brother of Samuel Bentham. He was a political radical, and a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism, for the concept of animal rights, and his opposition to the ideas of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts. " He also influenced the development of welfarism.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to propose a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today. Jussieu was born in Lyon, the nephew of the botanist Bernard de Jussieu. He went to Paris to study medicine, graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist.
William V Batavus, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and between 1795 and 1806 he led the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile in London. He was succeeded by his son William I.
Charles XIII & II (Stockholm, 7 October 1748 – Stockholm, 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.
Charles IV (Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno Jose Januario Serafin Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788 until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
John Playfair FRSE, FRS (10 March 1748 – 20 July 1819) was a Scottish scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is perhaps best known for his book Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (1802), which summarized the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 March 1748 – 20 June 1836) or Abbey Sieyes was a French Roman Catholic abbé and clergyman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. His liberal 1789 pamphlet What is the Third Estate? became the manifesto of the Revolution that helped transform the Estates-General into the National Assembly in June of 1789.
Johann Dominicus Fiorillo (October 13, 1748 – September 10, 1821) was a German painter and historian of art. Johann Dominicus Fiorillo, a son of Italian composer Ignazio Fiorillo, was born at Hamburg on 13 October 1748. He received his first instructions in art at an academy of painting at Bayreuth; and in 1761, to continue his studies, he went first to Rome, and next to Bologna, where he distinguished himself sufficiently to attain in 1769 admission to the academy.
William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, KG (14 December 1748 – 29 July 1811) was the eldest son of the 4th Duke of Devonshire by his wife the heiress Lady Charlotte Boyle, suo jure Baroness Clifford of Lanesborough, who brought in considerable money and estates to the Cavendish family. The 5th Duke is best known for his first wife Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire.
James Sayers (or Sayer) (1748 - April 20, 1823) was an English caricaturist. He was born at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, the son of a merchant captain. He began as clerk in an attorney's office, and was for a time a member of the borough council. In 1780 his father's death provided him with a small fortune, and he went to London. As a political caricaturist he supported of William Pitt the Younger.
"Lord" Timothy Dexter (January 22, 1748 – October 26, 1806), as he was sometimes termed by admiring contemporaries, was an American eccentric businessman who was peculiarly lucky and never bothered to learn to spell.
Jonas Carlsson Dryander (5 March 1748 – 19 October 1810) was a Swedish botanist. Dryander was born in Gothenburg. He was a pupil of Carolus Linnaeus at Uppsala University. He arrived in London on 10 July 1777. He was botanist/librarian to Sir Joseph Banks from 1782 (following the death of Daniel Solander), librarian of the Royal Society and Vice-President of the Linnean Society. Dryander's publications included Catalogus bibliothecae historico-naturalis Joseph Banksi (1796-1800).
John Hampden-Trevor, 3rd Viscount Hampden PC (24 February 1748 – 9 September 1824), was a British diplomat. He was the younger son of Robert Hampden, 1st Viscount Hampden and was educated at Westminster School and Christchurch College, Oxford. He followed in his father's career by becoming a diplomat. He was Minister to Munich (1780 – 1783) and to Turin (1783 – 1798). On 8 May 1773 he married Harriet Burton (1751–1829), daughter of the Rev. Daniel Burton.
Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748 - 1831) was a French ornithologist. Vieillot described a large number of birds for the first time, especially those he encountered during the time he spent in the West Indies and North America, and 26 genera established by him are still in use. He was one of the first ornithologists to study changes in plumage, and also one of the first to study live birds as well as skins. Vieillot was born in Yvetot.
Adamantios Korais or Coraïs (27 April 1748 – 6 April 1833) was a humanist scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa.
Olympe de Gouges (7 May 1748 – 3 November 1793), born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. As political tension rose in France, de Gouges became increasingly politically involved. She became an outspoken advocate for ameliorating the condition of slaves in the colonies as of 1788. At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets.
Anders Erikson Sparrman (February 27, 1748–August 9, 1820) was a Swedish naturalist and an abolitionist. Sparrman was the son of a clergyman. At the age of nine he enrolled at Uppsala University, beginning medical studies at fourteen and becoming one of the outstanding pupils of Linnaeus. In 1765 he went on a voyage to China as ship's doctor, returning two years later and describing the animals and plants he had encountered. On this voyage he met Carl Gustaf Ekeberg.
Jean-Dominique, comte de Cassini (June 30, 1748 – October 18, 1845) was a French astronomer, son of César-François Cassini de Thury. Cassini was born at the Paris Observatory. In 1784 he succeeded his father as director of the observatory; but his plans for its restoration and re-equipment were wrecked in 1793 by the animosity of the National Assembly. His position having become intolerable, he resigned on September 6, and was thrown into prison in 1794, but released after seven months.