Domenico Alberti (c. 1710 – 1740) was an Italian singer, harpsichordist, and composer whose works bridge the Baroque and Classical periods. Alberti was born in Venice and studied music with Antonio Lotti. He wrote operas, songs, and sonatas for keyboard instruments, for which he is best known today. These sonatas frequently employ a particular kind of arpeggiated accompaniment in the left hand that is now known as the Alberti bass.
Frederick William I (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick William II) from 1713 until his death. He is popularly known as "the Soldier-King" (der Soldatenkönig). He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel.
Pope Clement XII (7 April 1652 – 6 February 1740), born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to 6 February 1740. Born in Florence, the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Isabella Strozzi, sister of the Duke of Bagnuolo, Corsini had been an aristocratic lawyer and financial manager under preceding pontiffs.
Dossou Agadja was the third King of Dahomey. He succeeded Houessou Akaba, and ruled from 1708 to 1740. Akaba's only son, Agbo Sassa, was only ten years old when Akaba died, so as Akaba's brother, Agadja took the throne to become the fifth king. He refused to let Agbo Sassa reclaim the throne when he came of age and forced him into exile. Agadja's reign was characterized by continual warfare.
Thomas Baker (September 14, 1656, Lanchester, Durham – July 2, 1740), English antiquarian, was the grandson of Colonel Baker of Crook, Durham, who won fame in the English Civil War by his defence of Newcastle upon Tyne against the Scots. Thomas was educated at the free school at Durham, and went on to St John's College, Cambridge, where he later obtained a fellowship.
Charles VI (October 1685 – 20 October 1740) was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria, etc. , in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles' relative, Carlos II, in 1700.
Olaus Rudbeckius, junior or Olof Rudbeck (d.y. ) (1660-1740), Swedish explorer and scientist, son of Olaus Rudbeck Sr. Rudbeck Jr. succeeded his father as professor of medicine at Uppsala University. Young Rudbeck was an able botanist and ornithologist who took his doctor's degree in Utrecht in 1690. He traveled to Lapland in 1695, joining an expedition commissioned by the King, for which his mission was to study nature, the mountains in particular.
Shrimant Baji Rao Balaji Bhat (August 18, 1699 – April 28, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu from 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorale Baji Rao. Despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder, Shivaji, to help reach its zenith during his son's reign twenty years after his death.
James Tuchet, 6th Earl of Castlehaven (died 12 October 1740) was the son of James Tuchet, 5th Earl of Castlehaven and his wife Anne Pelson. He succeeded his father as Earl of Castlehaven and Baron Arundel on 9 August 1700. He married, on 14 May 1722, Elizabeth Arundell (1693–1743), daughter of Henry Arundell and his wife, née Elizabeth Panton.
Professor Johann Bartholomeus Adam Beringer (cca 1667 - 1738) of the faculty of medicine at the University of Würzburg was the victim of a famous early 18th century hoax, perpetrated on him by his colleagues Jesuite Ignatz Roderick (Roderique), professor of geography and mathematics, and Johann Georg von Eckhart, privy counsellor and university librarian, apparently in retaliation for Beringer's habitual arrogance.
Antonio Lotti (ca. 1667 – 5 January 1740) was an Italian composer of classical music. Lotti was born in Venice, although his father Matteo was Kapellmeister at Hanover at the time. In 1682, Lotti began studying with Lodovico Fuga and Giovanni Legrenzi, both of whom were employed at St Mark's Basilica, Venice's principal church.
Artemy Petrovich Volynsky (1689–1740) was a Russian statesman and diplomat. His career started as a soldier but was rapidly upgraded to minister under Peter the Great and governor of Astrakhan. Peter stripped him of nearly all his powers until Catherine I appointed him governor of Kazan. Conspiracy under Anna of Russia earned him a trial with Biren's men; he was executed on June 27, 1740.
Jean Cavalier, real name Joan Cavalièr in Occitan, (November 28, 1681 - May 17, 1740), the famous chief of the Camisards, was born at Mas Roux, a small hamlet in the commune of Ribaute near Anduze. His father, an illiterate peasant, had been compelled by persecution to become a Roman Catholic along with his family, but his mother brought him up secretly in the Protestant faith. In his boyhood he became a shepherd, and about his twentieth year he was apprenticed to a baker.
Alexander Spotswood (c. 1676 – 6 June 1740) was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army and a noted Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He is noted in Virginia and American history for a number of his projects as Governor, including his exploring beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains, his establishing what was perhaps the first colonial iron works, and his negotiating the Treaty of Albany with the Iroquois Nations of New York.
Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent KG PC (1671 – 5 June 1740) was a British courtier and one of the Lords Justice appointed during the absence, in Germany, of George I. He was a son of Anthony Grey, 11th Earl of Kent and Mary Grey, 1st Baroness Lucas of Crudwell. He succeeded his father as 12th Earl of Kent in 1702, having succeeded his mother as 2nd Baron Lucas earlier the same year. He was made Lord Chamberlain and a Privy Counsellor in 1704.
Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, Prince of Condé (duc de Bourbon, duc d'Enghien, duc de Guise, duc de Bellegarde, comte de Sancerre; 18 August 1692 – 27 January 1740) was head of the cadet Bourbon-Condé branch of the French royal House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.
Johann Georg Abicht was a German Lutheran theologian from Königsee, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. After finishing his studies at the universities of Jena and Leipzig, Abicht became teacher of oriental languages at the latter in 1702. In 1707 he was appointed rector of the college of Danzig and pastor at the Holy Trinity Church. In 1729 he was appointed general superintendent, professor of theology and pastor at the town church of Wittenberg.
Pierre Crozat (1661–1740) was a French art collector and brother of Antoine Crozat. Crozat was born in Toulouse, France, the son of peasants. He and his brother Antoine were opportunistic self-made men, rising from obscurity to become two of the wealthiest merchants in France - Pierre was known ironically as Crozat le pauvre.
Reverend John Abernethy (October 19, 1680 – December 1, 1740) was an Irish Presbyterian church leader, the grandfather of the surgeon John Abernethy. He was born at Coleraine, County Londonderry, where his father was a Nonconformist minister. In his thirteenth year he entered the University of Glasgow, and on concluding his course there went on to Edinburgh, where his he soon moved in the most cultured circles.
Daniel Cosgrove Waterland (14 February 1683, Walesby, Lincolnshire – 1740) was an English theologian. Daniel Waterland was born at Walesby Rectory, Lincolnshire, England, and educated in Lincoln and at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he graduated BA in 1703 and MA in 1706. He took orders, and obtained various preferments, becoming Master of Magdalene College in 1713, Chancellor of York in 1722, and Archdeacon of Middlesex in 1730.