Empress Xiao Zhao Ren, (1653 - 18 March 1678). Xiao Zhao Ren was the second Empress Consort of the Kang Xi Emperor. Her father was Duke Ebilun of the Niohuru clan, and her sister was the Noble Consort Wen Xi. Lady Niuhuru was firstly an Imperial Consort, and was later elevated to become an Empress Consort. Niuhuru died six months later, aged 25, and was interred into the Jing-Ling Mausoleum together with Empress Xiao Cheng Ren.
Giulio Carpioni (1613 – 29 January 1678) was an Italian painter and etcher of the early Baroque era. Born probably in Venice, Carpioni studied under Alessandro Varotari (il Padovanino) and was also influenced by the work of Simone Cantarini, Carlo Saraceni and Jean Leclerc. He came into contact with Lombard art after a brief visit to Bergamo in 1631. In 1638 he settled in Vicenza and executed most of his work there.
Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi da Montecuccolo (1621-1678) was an Italian Capuchin missionary noted for his travels in 17th century Angola and his lengthy account of local history and culture as well as a history of the Capuchin mission there. Cavazzi was an indifferent student and was almost denied a position in the central African mission, but eventually prevailed thanks to his piety. He arrived in Luanda in 1654 and was dispatched to the Portuguese possessions in the eastern end of the colony.
Jean de Launoy (Joannes Launoius) (1603–1678) was a French historian. Known as "le denicheur des saints", he was a critical historiographer. He was on the sceptical side over the supposed papal bull Sacratissimo uti culmine. In papal politics he was a Gallican, in theology a Jansenist.
Antoine III Agénor de Gramont-Toulongeon, duc de Gramont, comte de Guiche, comte de Gramont, comte de Louvigny, Souverain de Bidache, (1604, Chateau d'Hagetmau - 12 July 1678 Bayonne) was a French military man and diplomat. Marshal of France from 1641; Viceroy of Navarre and Béarn, and Governor of Bayonne.
Henri-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force (1582 – January 1678) was Duc de La Force and peer of France. He was the son of Marshal of France, Jacques-Nompar de Caumont, duc de la Force and Charlotte de Gontaut, daughter of Marshal Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron. First Marquis de Castelnau, later Duc de La Force after the death of his brother, he served King Louis XIII on many occasions. He served in the army under his father and was Maréchal-de-camp.
William Heveningham (1604–1678) was one of the Regicides of Charles I of England. Heveningham was sherriff of Norfolk, 1633. He was M.P. , Stockbridge, 1640. He served on committee of Eastern Association in 1646. As a member of high court he refused to sign death-warrant of Charles I in 1649. He was a member of council of state in 1649; and was appointed vice-admiral of Suffolk in 1651. At the Restoration his life was saved by the exertions of his wife's relations in 1661.
Hugh Hamilton (c. 1600 – 1678), 1st Lord of Glenawly in Ireland and 1st Baron of Deserf in Sweden, was a soldier in Swedish and English service. He came from a family that descended from the Hamiltons of Dalserf, a cadet branch of the House of Hamilton. The progenitor of the Dalserf branch, David Hamilton of Dalserf, was son of John Hamilton of Cadzow (died 1402), and uncle to,James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton. Hugh's father had moved from Scotland to Ireland in c 1604.
Pietro della Vecchia (1603 – September 8, 1678) was an Italian painter. Born in Vicenza or Venice, he probably trained with Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino, deriving a notable interest in Venetian masters such as Titian and Giorgione. Well known among his contemporaries for his ability to imitate the styles of 16th-century masters, he was also known for his grotesque paintings and portraiture.
Sebastiano Mazzoni (c. 1611 - Venice, 22 April 1678) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period. Born in Florence, he trained in that city during 1632-33 in the studio of Baccio del Bianco. He then moved to Venice in 1648, and stayed there till his death. He painted a somewhat unusual Annunciation with a hovering ghostly angel dominating the scene. In 1638 he joined the Accademia del Disegno in Florence.
Juraj Habdelić (Staro Čiče, 27 November 1609 - Zagreb, 27 November 1678) was a Croatian writer. He went to gymnasium in Zagreb, studied philosophy in Graz and theology in Trnava. He worked as a teacher in Rijeka, Varaždin and Zagreb where he became the rector of Jesuit Collegium and manager of Seminary.
Sir John Legard, 1st Baronet (1631 – 1 July 1678), of Ganton in Yorkshire, was an English landowner and Member of Parliament. He was the eldest son of John Legard of Ganton (b. 1606). He was elected to Parliament in 1660 as member for Scarborough, though he only represented the borough for a few months. In December of the same year he was created a baronet. In 1655 he married Grace Darcy (d. 1658), daughter of The Earl of Holderness.
Prospero Fagnani (b. in Italy, place and date of birth uncertain; died 1678) was an Italian canon lawyer. Some writers place his birth in 1598, others in 1587 or in 1588. It is certain that he studied at Perugia. At the age of twenty he was a doctor of civil and canon law; at twenty-two, secretary of the Congregation of the Council. He held this office for fifteen years. He fulfilled the same functions in several other Roman Congregations.
Erasmus Quellinus II (1607–1678) was a Flemish painter of the Baroque period. He was born and died in Antwerp. He worked in the studio of Peter Paul Rubens. His brother Artus Quellinus I (Arnoldus) was a prominent sculptor. Erasmus was initially an apprentice of Wallerant Vaillant.
Henry Scougal (1650-1678) was a Scottish theologian, minister and author. Henry Scougal was the second son of Patrick Scougal and Margaret Wemys. His father was Bishop of Aberdeen for more than 20 years. From his infancy, Scougal was raised with religion. From his youth, Scougal spent his free hours in reading, meditation and prayer. He especially enjoyed studying the historical passages of the Old Testament.
Philips Vingboons (or Vinckboons, Vinckeboons, Vinckbooms) (c. 1607 – 1678) was a Dutch architect. He was part of the school of Jacob van Campen, that is, Dutch Classicism. Vingboons was especially highly regarded in his native city of Amsterdam.
Sir Peter Leycester, 1st Baronet (also known as Sir Peter Leicester) (3 March 1614 – 11 October 1678) was an English antiquarian and historian. He was involved in the English Civil War on the royalist side and was subsequently made a baronet. He later compiled one of the earliest histories of the county of Cheshire and as a result of this became involved in a controversy with the Mainwaring family.
Jürgen Ovens (1623 – 9 December 1678), also known as Georg, or Jurriaen Ovens whilst in the Netherlands, was a portrait painter from North Frisia and, according to Arnold Houbraken, a pupil of Rembrandt. He is best known for his painting in the city hall of Amsterdam and paintings for the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp for whom he worked for more than 30 years, also as an art dealer.