Blaise Pascal, (June 19, 1623, Clermont-Ferrand – August 19, 1662, Paris) was a French mathematician, physicist, and Catholic philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a civil servant. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators, the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli.
Elizabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662), born Elizabeth of Scotland, was the eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Anne of Denmark. She was thus sister to King Charles I and cousin to King Frederick III of Denmark. With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her direct descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne.
Koxinga is the traditional Western spelling of the popular appellation of Zheng Chenggong (1624 - 1662). He was a Ming loyalist and military leader during the Southern Ming Dynasty who opposed the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty. Zheng led a military campaign on Taiwan and became the leader of the first ethnically Chinese state to rule the island after defeating its previous European rulers, the Dutch, in 1662.
Sir Henry Vane (Harry Vane) (1613 – June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. A constant theme of his life was religious tolerance. He was a leading Parliamentarian during the English Civil War. Vane served on the Council of State during the Interregnum, but refused to take the oath which expressed approval of the king's execution.
Henry Lawes (December 5, 1595 – October 21, 1662) was an English musician and composer. He was born at Dinton in Wiltshire, and received his musical education from John Cooper, better known under his Italian pseudonym Giovanni Coperario, a famous composer of the day. In 1626, Lawes was received as one of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, and held the position until the Commonwealth put a stop to church music.
Count Axel Lillie, also spelled Lillje (July 23, 1603 – December 20, 1662) was a Swedish soldier and politician. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor General of Pomerania in 1643, Privy Councilor in 1648, Governor General of Pomerania in 1652, Field Marshal in 1657, and Governor General of Livonia in 1661. In the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), he commanded troops at the Battle of Leipzig, in 1642. He had Löfstad Castle built.
Samuel Hartli(e)b (ca. 1600 – 1662) was a German-British polymath. An active promoter and expert writer in many fields, he was interested in science, medicine, agriculture, politics, and education. He settled in England, where he married and died. He was a contemporary of Robert Boyle whom he knew well, and a neighbour of Samuel Pepys in Axe Yard. Hartlib is often described as an "intelligencer", and indeed has been called "the Great Intelligencer of Europe".
William Lenthall (1591 – 9 November 1662) was an English politician of the Civil War period. He served as Speaker of the House of Commons. The second son of William Lenthall of North Leigh in Oxfordshire, a descendant of an old Herefordshire family, he was born at Henley-on-Thames. Educated at Lord Williams's School, he later left Oxford without taking a degree in 1609, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1616, becoming a bencher in 1633.
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (28 June 1582 – 14 April 1662) was born at the family home of Broughton Castle near Banbury, in Oxfordshire. He was the only son of Richard Fiennes, seventh Baron Saye and Sele. He was descended from James Fiennes, 1st Baron Saye and Sele, who was Lord Chamberlain and Lord Treasurer under Henry VI and who was beheaded by the rebels under Jack Cade on 4 July 1450.
Sir Richard Culmer (1597–1662) is listed by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as being of unknown parentage, although some sources indicate that he was the eldest son of Sir Henry Culmer (c. 1574-1633), the first Baron Culmer. According to this tree, Sir Henry, himself a son of a Henry Culmer, had married Mary Baldwyn in 1602, and was created a Baron by King Charles I in 1630, although this is not listed in Burke's Peerage.
Peter Heylin or Heylyn (29 Nov 1599 – 1662) was an English ecclesiastic and author of many polemical, historical, political and theological tracts. He incorporated his political concepts into his geographical books Microcosmus in 1621 and Cosmographie (1657).
The Prince of Gui (桂王) or the Yongli Emperor, was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty in China. His era name means "Perpetual calendar". He was the last surviving Southern Ming emperor who lived long enough to see the collapse of the last vestiges of the Ming dynasty in mainland China. Born Zhu Youlang (朱由榔) sometime in 1623, to Zhu Changying (朱常瀛), the seventh son of the Wanli Emperor.
Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne was a versatile Dutch Golden Age painter of allegories, genre subjects and portraits, as well as a miniaturist, book-illustrator and designer of political satires and a versifier.
Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria, (May 17, 1628 – December 30, 1662 in Kaltern) was the ruler of Further Austria including Tirol from 1646 to 1662. As the son of Archduke Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici, he took over his mother's governatorial duties when he came of age in 1646. To finance his extravagant living style, he sold goods and entitlements.
William Pynchon (October 11, 1590 – October 29, 1662) was a colonial assistant, treasurer and original patentee of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He led the 1635 settlement of Springfield, Hampden County, Massachusetts, which was named after his home village, now a suburb of Chelmsford in Essex, England. Pynchon was a theologian; he expressed his views in The Meritorious Price of Our Redemption (1650).
Honoré II (24 December 1597 – 10 January 1662) was Sovereign Prince of Monaco. He was the first to be called Prince, but started his reign as Lord of Monaco. He was the son of Hercule, Lord of Monaco (24 September 1562 – 21 November 1604) and Maria Landi. His father was murdered when he was six, and he succeeded under the regency of his uncle, Frederico Landi, prince of Val di Taro.
John Biddle or Bidle (born Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, England, 14 January 1615 – died 22 September 1662) was an influential English nontrinitarian, and Unitarian. He is often called "the Father of English Unitarianism".
Murad Baksh (died 1661) was the youngest son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. In 1657 he proclaimed himself emperor after reports that his father had died and later joined hands with Aurangzeb to defeat Dara Shikhoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan.