Patrick Abercromby (1656–c.1716), Scottish physician and antiquarian, noted for being physician to King James VII (II of England) and his fervent opposition to the Act of Union between Scotland and England.
Edmond Halley FRS (8 November 1656 – 14 January 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist who is best known for computing the orbit of the eponymous Halley's comet.
Thomas Baker (September 14, 1656, Lanchester, Durham – July 2, 1740), English antiquarian, was the grandson of Colonel Baker of Crook, Durham, who won fame in the English Civil War by his defence of Newcastle upon Tyne against the Scots. Thomas was educated at the free school at Durham, and went on to St John's College, Cambridge, where he later obtained a fellowship.
Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha or Blessed Catherine Tekakwitha (in Mohawk; 1656 – April 17, 1680) was a Mohawk-Algonquian woman from New York and an early convert to Christianity, who has been beatified in the Roman Catholic Church.
Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer (some authorities use the spelling Johann Kasper Ferdinand Fischer) (9 September 1656 – 27 August 1746) was a German Baroque composer. Johann Nikolaus Forkel ranked Fischer as one of the best composers for keyboard of his day, however, partly due to the rarity of surviving copies of his music, his music is rarely heard today.
Robert Molesworth, 1st Viscount Molesworth PC (7 September 1656 – 22 May 1725) came of an old Northamptonshire family. He married Letitia Coote, daughter of Richard Coote, 1st Lord Coote of Coloony and Mary St. George. His father Robert (d. 1656) was a Cromwellian who made a fortune in Dublin; Robert Molesworth the younger supported William of Orange and was made William's ambassador to Denmark. In 1695 he became a prominent member of the Privy Council of Ireland.
Anton Florian, Prince of Liechtenstein (28 May 1656 – 11 October 1721) was the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1718 and 1721. He was born in Wilfersdorf, in what is now Upper Austria. During the War of the Spanish Succession, he went to Spain, where he was the Chief Intendant and Prime Minister of the Archduke Karl, who became Emperor Charles VI after the sudden death of his brother in 1711. Florian returned to Vienna for Charles's coronation.
Marin Marais (31 May 1656, Paris – 15 August 1728, Paris) was a French composer and viol player. He studied composition with Jean-Baptiste Lully, often conducting his operas, and with master of the bass viol Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe for 6 months. He was hired as a musician in 1676 to the royal court of Versailles. He did quite well as court musician, and in 1679 was appointed "ordinaire de la chambre du roy pour la viole", a title he kept until 1725.
Nicolas de Largillière (October 10, 1656 – March 20, 1746), French painter, was born in Paris. His father, a merchant, took him to Antwerp at the age of three. As a boy, he spent nearly two years in London. Sometime after his return to Antwerp, a failed attempt at business led him to the studio of Goubeau. However, Largillière left at the age of eighteen to seek his fortune in England, where he was befriended and employed by Lely, for four years at Windsor.
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (20 July 1656 – 5 April 1723) was probably the most influential Austrian architect of the Baroque period. Architectural tastes throughout the Habsburg Empire were profoundly influenced by his ideas, as articulated in A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture (1721), one of the first and most popular comparative studies of world architecture.
Claude, chevalier, then count de Forbin-Gardanne (6 August 1656 – 4 March 1733) was a French naval commander. 1685-1688 he was on a diplomatic mission to Siam. He became governor of Bangkok and a general in the Siamese army, and left Siam shortly before King Narai fell ill and was deposed by a Coup d'état.
Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland PC (16 February 1656 – 24 May 1694; the surname is spelt Carey in some sources) was a Scottish nobleman and English politician. He was the son of Henry Cary, 4th Viscount Falkland. He married Rebecca Lytton and had one daughter: Harriott Cary (d. 21 October 1683) A Member of the Parliament of England, he was sworn of the Privy Council of England in 1692 and served as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1693 to 1694.
Hugh Speke (1656 - c. 1724), English writer and agitator, was a son of George Speke (died 1690) of Whitelackington, Somerset. The older Speke was a member of the Green Ribbon Club, the great Whig organization which was founded in 1675, and was a supporter of the Duke of Monmouth, voting for the Exclusion Bill in 1681.
Rebecca Rawson (May 23, 1656, Massachusetts - June 7-June 9, 1692, near Port Royal, Jamaica) was the heroine of the 1849 book Leaves from Margaret Smith's Journal, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The ninth child of Edward Rawson, Rebecca was considered "one of the most beautiful, polite and accomplished young ladies in Boston". She married Thomas Rumsey on July 1, 1679 who posed as Sir Thomas Hale Jr. (the son of Lord Chief Justice Hale of England).
William Fleetwood (1 January 1656 – 4 August 1723) was an English preacher, Bishop of St Asaph and Bishop of Ely, remembered by economists and statisticians for constructing a price index in his Chronicon Preciosum of 1707.
Jacob de Heusch (bapt. November 23, 1656, Utrecht - May 8, 1701, Amsterdam), was a Dutch painter. He was Willem de Heusch's nephew, signing like his uncle, substituting an initial J for the initial G (of Guglielmo). He learnt drawing from his uncle, and travelled to Rome in 1675, where he acquired friends and patrons for whom he executed pictures after his return. According to Houbraken, he became a member of the Bentvueghels.
Johann Michael Rottmayr (December 11, 1656 – October 25, 1730), was an Austrian painter. He was the first notable baroque painter north of Italy. Rottmayr was born in Laufen an der Salzach, Austria. He received his education from Johann Carl Loth in Venice. From 1689 onwards he worked in Salzburg, where he was employed as the general painter of the Prince-Bishop of Salzburg.
William Molyneux (17 April 1656 – 11 October 1698, both in Dublin) was an Irish natural philosopher and writer on politics. Born in Dublin to Samuel Molyneux (1616–1693), lawyer and landowner, and his wife, Anne, née Dowdall, the second of five children, William Molyneux came from a relatively prosperous Anglican background. In 1671 Molyneux began to attend Trinity College, Dublin where he became an avid reader of the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution.
Nicolaas Hartsoeker (26 March 1656, Gouda - 10 December 1725, Utrecht) was a Dutch mathematician and physicist who invented the screw-barrel simple microscope circa 1694. Nicolaas was the son of Christiaan Hartsoeker (1626-1683), a Remonstrant minister in Moordrecht near Gouda. His father would take the family to Alkmaar in 1661 and finally to Rotterdam in 1669. Nicolaas started to make a living as a lensmaker in Rotterdam, and was instructed in optics by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.