James Hepburn, 1st Duke of Orkney (c. 1534 – 14 April 1578), better known by his inherited title as 4th Earl of Bothwell, was Hereditary Lord High Admiral of Scotland. He is best known for his association with and subsequent marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, as her third husband.
Johann Stumpf (1500–1578) was an early writer on the history and topography of Switzerland. He was born at Bruchsal, and was educated there and at Strasbourg and Heidelberg. In 1520 he became a cleric or chaplain in the order of the Knights Hospitaller. He was sent in 1521 to the preceptory of that order at Freiburg in Breisgau, ordained a priest at Basel, and in 1522 was placed in charge of the preceptory at Bubikon.
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (8 October 1515 – 7 March 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, queen dowager of Scotland. Margaret was born at Harbottle Castle in Northumberland. Because of her nearness to the English crown, Lady Margaret Douglas was brought up chiefly at the English court in close association with her cousin and half-niece, the future Queen Mary I of England, who remained her fast friend throughout life.
Pedro Nunes, was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, born from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family. Nunes, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time, is best known for his contributions in the technical field of navigation, which was crucial to the Portuguese period of discoveries. He was the first to propose the idea of a loxodrome and was also the inventor of several measuring devices, including the nonius, named after his Latin surname.
Sebastian I, King of Portugal "the Desired" (o Desejado; born in Lisbon, 20 January 1554; presumed to have died at Alcácer-Quibir, 4 August 1578) was the 16th king of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the son of Prince John of Portugal and his wife, Joan of Spain. His paternal grandparents were John III of Portugal and Catherine of Habsburg; his maternal grandparents were the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal.
Uesugi Kenshin (上杉 謙信, February 18, 1530 – April 19, 1578) was a daimyo who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku period of Japan. He was one of the many powerful lords of the Sengoku period. He is famed for his prowess on the battlefield, the legendary rivalry with Takeda Shingen, his military expertise, strategy and his belief in the god of war — Bishamonten. In fact, many of his followers and others believed him to be the avatar of Bishamonten, and called Kenshin god of war.
Amago Katsuhisa was a remnant of the Amago clan, a powerful feudal clan in the Chūgoku region, Japan; backed-up by Yamanaka Yukimori, a vassal of the clan. He was born to Amago Masahisa in 1553. In the following year, Katsuhisa's father and grandfather were killed by Amago Haruhisa, leading Katsuhisa to become a Buddhist monk. After the Amago clan was overthrown by Mōri Motonari in 1566, Yamanaka Yukimori supported Katsuhisa against the Mori clan in 1568.
Giorgio Giulio Clovio, was a Renaissance illuminator, miniaturist, and painter, born in Croatia, who worked in Renaissance Italy. He was also a priest. He is considered the greatest illuminator of the Italian High Renaissance, and arguably the last very notable artist in the long tradition of the illuminated manuscript, before some modern revivals.
Giovanni Battista Moroni (c. 1520/24 – February 5, 1578) was a North Italian painter of the Late Renaissance period. He is also called Giambattista Moroni. Best known for his elegantly realistic portraits of the local nobility and clergy, he is considered one of the great portrait painters of sixteenth century Italy.
John of Austria (24 February, 1547 - 1 October 1578), in English traditionally known as Don John of Austria, and in Spanish as Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, Philip of Spain and is best known for his naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
Cornelis Cort (1533? - c. March 17, 1578), was a Dutch engraver and draughtsman. He spent the last 12 years of his life in Italy, where he was known as Cornelio Fiammingo. Born at Hoorn or Edam, Cort may have been a pupil of Dirck Volckertsz Coornhert in the 1550s in Haarlem. His first known engravings were printed in Antwerp around 1553, though it is thought that he remained working in the Northern Netherlands. The publisher was Hieronymous Cock, under whom Cort may have apprenticed as well.
Pierre Lescot (c. 1510 – September 1578) was a French architect active during the French Renaissance, "the man who was first responsible for the implantation of pure and correct classical architecture in France. " He was born in Paris. King Francis I of France took him into his service, and appointed him architect in charge of the building projects at the Palais du Louvre, which transformed the old château into the palace that we know.
William II de la Marck was Lord of Lumey and initially admiral of the Gueux de mer, the so-called 'sea beggars' who fought in the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), together with among others William the Silent, Prince of Orange-Nassau. He was the great-grandson of an equally notorious character, baron William de la Marck, nicknamed the "wild boar of the Ardennes".
Lady Mary Grey (1545–20 April 1578), sometimes spelled Marie, was the third and last daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon. She was a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and Lady Catherine Grey. Her maternal grandparents were Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, former Queen consort of France, who was the younger daughter of King Henry VII of England. As great-grandchildren of Henry VII, Mary and her sisters were potential heirs to the throne.
Princess Mihrimah Sultana (1522 – 25 January 1578) was a daughter of Sultan Suleiman I, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, and his fourth wife, Valide Sultan (1558) Hürrem Sultan, the name she was given upon her marriage, originally named Roxelana, a Ruthenian. Princess Mihrimar's name is also spelled Mirhumah, Mihr-i-Mah or Mihri-a-Mah. She was born in İstanbul. Mihrimah traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire with her father as he surveyed the lands and conquered new ones.
William Roper (c. 1498 – 4 January 1578), biographer, son of a Kentish gentleman, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas More. He wrote a highly regarded biography of his father-in-law. William Roper was the eldest son of John Roper (d. 1524), Attorney-General to Henry VIII, and his wife Jane (died c.1544), daughter and coheir of Sir John Fyneux, Chief Justice of King's Bench.
Thomas Stukley (surname also spelled as Stucley, Stukely, Stukeley) (c. 1520 – 4 August 1578) was an English mercenary who served in combat in France, Ireland, and at the Battle of Lepanto, before his death at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. It was alleged that he was an illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England. A Roman Catholic recusant, he also was a rebel against Queen Elizabeth I.
Ikeda Katsumasa (池田 勝正; 1539 – 1578) was a daimyo in Japan's Azuchi-Momoyama period. His father was Ikeda Nagamasa and his young brother was Ikeda Tomomasa. In 1563, Katsumasa succeeded to a house when his father, Nagamasa died. These days Ikeda clan had belonged to Miyoshi clan. However, since Miyoshi Nagayoshi died and Miyoshi clan became weak, retainers of Miyoshi clan were divided.
Catherine of Austria, also called Catherine of Castile or Catherine of Burgundy (14 January 1507 – 12 February 1578) was (as wife of King John III of Portugal) Queen consort of Portugal. She was the regent of Portugal during the minority of her grandson.
Thomas Doughty (?–July 2, 1578) was an English nobleman, soldier, scholar and personal secretary of Christopher Hatton. His association with Francis Drake, on a 1577 voyage to interfere with Spanish treasure fleets, ended in a shipboard trial for treason and witchcraft and Doughty's execution.
Kōsaka Masanobu also known as Kasuga Toratsuna (b. 1527 d. 1578) was one of Takeda Shingen's most loyal retainers, and one of his 'Twenty-Four Generals' during the Sengoku period of Japan. He is often credited as the original author of Kōyō Gunkan, which records the history of the Takeda family and their military tactics. However, recent studies strongly suggest that other writers used Kōsaka's name to boost the book's credibility.
Sir Arthur Champernowne (1524 – 29 March 1578) was a Vice-Admiral of the West who lived at Dartington Hall in Devon, England. Champernowne was the second son of Sir Philip Champernowne of Modbury, Devon, whose family had lived in Devon since arriving from Cambernon in Normandy in the eleventh century as part of the Norman Conquest. Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Ralegh, the sons of his sister Katherine, were his nephews. His aunt Katherine Champernowne was governess to Elizabeth I.