Aspartame (or APM) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in many foods and beverages. In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E951. Aspartame is the methyl ester of a phenylalanine/aspartic acid dipeptide. Aspartame was first synthesized in 1965. Its use in food products was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1980.
Glucose (Glc), a simple sugar also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar, is an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Starch and cellulose are complex sugars and polymers of glucose.
Honey is a sweet food made by certain insects using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans. Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees form nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation and store it as a food source in wax honeycombs inside the beehive.
Lactose is a sugar that is found most notably in milk. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by weight), although the amount varies among species and individuals. It is extracted from sweet or sour whey. The name comes from lacte, the Latin word for milk, plus the -ose ending used to name sugars.
Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying/heating with hot air. Thus, malting is a combination of two processes: the sprouting process and the kiln-drying process. These latter terms are often preferred when referring to the field of brewing for batches of beer or other beverages as they provide more specific information.
Stevia is a genus of about 240 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family, native to subtropical and tropical regions from western North America to South America. The species Stevia rebaudiana, commonly known as sweetleaf, sweet leaf, sugarleaf, or simply stevia, is widely grown for its sweet leaves.
Sucralose is a zero-calorie sugar substitute artificial sweetener. In the European Union, it is also known under the E number (additive code) E955. Sucralose is approximately 600 times as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), twice as sweet as saccharin, and 3.3 times as sweet as aspartame. Unlike aspartame, it is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions. Therefore, it can be used in baking or in products that require a longer shelf life.
Splenda is a sucralose-based artificial sweetener marketed initially in North America. Since its United States introduction in 1999, sucralose has overtaken Equal in the $1.5 billion artificial sweetener market, holding a 62% market share. According to market research firm IRI, as reported in the Wall Street Journal, Splenda sold $212 million in 2006 in the U.S. while Equal sold $48.7 million. Its patent is owned by the British company Tate & Lyle.
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ), a member of the Chenopodiaceae family, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. The sugar comes from the bulb of the beetroot plant, chard and fodder beet, all descended by cultivation from the sea beet. The European Union, the United States, and Russia are the world's three largest sugar beet producers, although only the European Union and Ukraine are significant exporters of sugar from beets.
Fructose (also levulose) is a simple monosaccharide found in many foods. It is a white solid that dissolves readily in water. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables contain significant amounts of the fructose derivative sucrose. Sucrose is a disaccharide derived from the condensation of glucose and fructose. About 250M kg of crystalline fructose are produced annually. Crystalline fructose and high-fructose corn syrup are often confused as the same product.
Sucrose is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. This white, odorless, crystalline powder has a pleasing, sweet taste. It is best known for its role in human nutrition. The molecule is a disaccharide derived from glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11. About 150,000,000 tons are produced annually.
Galactose (Gal) is a type of sugar that is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek word for milk, γάλακτος (galaktos). It is an epimer of glucose. Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactose solubility in water is 68.30 grams per 100 grams of water at 20–25°C.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, referred to as artificial sweeteners. An important class of sugar substitutes are known as high-intensity sweeteners. These are compounds with sweetness that is many times that of sucrose, common table sugar.
Corn syrup is a syrup, which is made from the starch of maize or "corn" (U.S. ) and which is composed mainly of glucose. Corn syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavour. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup, created when corn syrup undergoes enzymatic processing that produces a sweeter compound containing higher levels of fructose.
Maple sugar is what remains after the sap of the sugar maple is boiled for longer than is needed to create maple syrup or maple taffy. Once almost all the water has been boiled off, all that is left is a solid sugar. By composition, this sugar is about 90% sucrose, the remainder consisting of variable amounts of glucose and fructose. This is usually sold in pressed blocks or as a translucent candy. It is difficult to create as the sugar easily burns and thus requires considerable skill.
Powdered sugar, also known as confectioner's sugar or icing sugar, is very fine powdered sugar. When intended for home use, it typically contains a small amount of anti-caking agent. In industrial food production, it is used where a quick dissolving sugar is required. Domestically, it is principally used to make icing or frosting and other cake decorations. It is often lightly dusted on baked goods to add a light sweetness and subtle decoration.
Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4)bond. The isomer isomaltose has two glucose molecules linked through an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the second member of an important biochemical series of glucose chains. Maltose is the disaccharide produced when amylase breaks down starch. It is found in germinating seeds such as Barley as they break down their starch stores to use for food.
Xylitol (from Greek ξύλον - xyl, "wood" + suffix -itol, used to denote sugar alcohols) is a sugar alcohol sweetener used as a naturally occurring sugar substitute. It is found in the fibers of many fruits and vegetables, including various berries, corn husks, oats, and mushrooms. It can be extracted from corn fiber, birch, raspberries, plums, and corn. Xylitol is roughly as sweet as sucrose with only two-thirds the food energy.
Liquorice, also licorice, is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a legume (related to beans and peas), native to southern Europe and parts of Asia. It is not related to Anise, Star Anise or Fennel, which are the source ofsuperficially similar flavouring compounds. It is an herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 centimetres (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets.
In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl (OH) groups, and the water. Technically and scientifically, the term syrup is also employed to denote viscous, generally residual, liquids, containing substances other than sugars in solution.
Thaumatin is a low-calorie (virtually calorie-free) protein sweetener and flavour modifier. The substance is often used primarily for its flavour modifying properties and not exclusively as a sweetener. The thaumatins were first found as a mixture of proteins isolated from the katemfe fruit (Thaumatococcus daniellii Bennett) of west Africa. Some of the proteins in the thaumatin family are natural sweeteners roughly 2000 times more potent than sugar.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus. NHDC was discovered during the 1960s as part of a United States Department of Agriculture research program to find methods for minimizing the taste of bitter flavorants in citrus juices. Neohesperidin is one such bitter compound.