Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a 19th-century German philosopher and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, using a distinctive German-language style and displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism and postmodernism.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was an Irish writer, poet and prominent aesthete. His parents were successful Dublin intellectuals, and from an early age he showed his intelligence, becoming fluent in French and German, then an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. After university, Wilde moved around trying his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured extensively, and wrote journalism prolifically.
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer, of Irish and Italian descent, best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert, including such continually-popular works as H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and The Mikado.
John Sherman, nicknamed "The Ohio Icicle" (May 10, 1823 – October 22, 1900), was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Ohio during the Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. He served as both Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State and was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act. His older brothers were Charles Taylor Sherman, a US Judge in Ohio, and General William Tecumseh Sherman of Civil War fame. His younger brother was banker Hoyt Sherman.
Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers (14 April 1827 – 4 May 1900) was an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. He was noted for his innovations in archaeological methods, and in the museum display of archaeological and ethnological collections. Born Augustus Henry Lane Fox at Bramham cum Oglethorpe, Wetherby, Yorkshire on 14 April 1827, he was the son of William Lane Fox and Lady Caroline Douglas, a sister of George Douglas, 17th Earl of Morton.
Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 – June 5, 1900) was an American novelist, short story writer, poet and journalist. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism. He is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation. The eighth surviving child of highly devout parents, Crane was raised in several New Jersey towns and Port Jervis, New York.
Umberto I or Humbert I, nicknamed the Good (in Italian il Buono), was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his death. He was deeply loathed in far-left circles, especially among anarchists, because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan. He was killed by anarchist Gaetano Bresci two years after the incident.
Richard Wigginton Thompson (June 8, 1809–February 9, 1900) was an American politician. Thompson was born in Culpeper County, Virginia. He left Virginia in 1831 and lived briefly in Louisville, Kentucky before finally settling in Lawrence County, Indiana. There, he taught school, kept a store, and studied law at night. Admitted to the bar in 1834, he practiced law in Bedford, Indiana, and served four terms in the Indiana General Assembly from 1834 to 1838.
John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry GCVO (20 July 1844 – 31 January 1900) was a Scottish nobleman, remembered for lending his name and patronage to the "Marquess of Queensberry rules" that formed the basis of modern boxing, and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was an English art critic and social thinker, also remembered as a poet and artist. His essays on art and architecture were extremely influential in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Ruskin first came to widespread attention for his support for the work of J. M. W. Turner and his defence of naturalism in art. He subsequently put his weight behind the Pre-Raphaelite movement.
Charles Piazzi Smyth (January 3, 1819 – February 21, 1900), was Astronomer Royal for Scotland from 1846 to 1888, well-known for many innovations in astronomy and his pyramidological and metrological studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Henry Barnard (24 January 1811, Hartford, Connecticut – 5 July 1900, Hartford, Connecticut) was an American educationalist. Barnard attended Wilbraham & Monson Academy and graduated from Yale University in 1830. In 1835 Barnard was admitted to the Connecticut bar.
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 1844 – 30 July 1900) was the third Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha reigning between 1893 and 1900. He was also a member of the British Royal Family, the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster in the peerage of the United Kingdom on 24 May 1866.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian-American chess player and the first undisputed world chess champion from 1886 to 1894. Steinitz lost his title to Emanuel Lasker in 1894 and also lost a rematch in 1897. Statistical rating systems give Steinitz a rather low ranking among world champions, mainly because he took several long breaks from competitive play.
Count Kiyotaka Kuroda, (16 October 1840 - 23 August 1900), also known as Kuroda Ryōsuke (黑田 了介), was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from 30 April 1888 to 25 October 1889.
Jean Gaspard Félix Ravaisson-Mollien (23 October 1813 – 18 May 1900) was a French philosopher and archaeologist. He was born at Namur. After a successful course of study at the College Rollin, he went to Munich, where he attended the lectures of Schelling, and took his degree in philosophy in 1836. In the following year he published the first volume of his famous work Essai sur la métaphysique d'Aristote, to which in 1846 he added a supplementary volume.
Albert Victor Samain (April 3, 1858 — August 18, 1900) was a French poet and writer of the Symbolist school. Born in Lille, his family were Flemish and had long lived in the town or its suburbs. At the time of the poet's birth, his father, Jean-Baptiste Samain, and his mother, Elisa-Henriette Mouquet, conducted a business in "wines and spirits" at 75 rue de Paris. Samain's father died when he was quite young; it was necessary for him to leave school and seek a trade.
Vincent, Count Benedetti (April 29, 1817 – March 28, 1900) was a French diplomat. He is probably best known as one of the central figures in the instigation of the Franco-Prussian War. Benedetti was born at Bastia, on the island of Corsica. In 1840 he entered the service of the French foreign office, and was appointed to a post under the Marquis de la Valette, who was consul-general at Cairo.
Gottlieb Daimler (March 17, 1834 – March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now the Federal Republic of Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development. He invented the first high-speed petrol engine and the first four-wheel automobile.
Henry Sidgwick (May 31, 1838–August 28, 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher. He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research, a member of the Metaphysical Society, and promoted the higher education of women.
Dankmar Adler was a German-born American architect. Adler was a civil engineer who, with his partner Louis Sullivan, designed many buildings including the Guaranty Building in Buffalo, New York, the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894-1972) and the Auditorium Building (1889), an early example of acoustical engineering, and the Kehilath Anshe Ma'ariv Synagogue.