Aqua regia or aqua regis (Latin for royal water or king's water) is a highly corrosive, fuming yellow or red solution, also called nitro-hydrochloric acid. The mixture is formed by freshly mixing concentrated nitric acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid, usually in a volumetric ratio of 1:3 respectively. It was named so because it can dissolve the so-called "royal metals," or noble metals, gold and platinum.
Geber is the Latinized form of "Jabir", with the full name of Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān al azdi, (born c. 721 in Tous–died c. 815 in Kufa), a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is considered by many to be the "father of chemistry. " His ethnic background is not clear; although some sources state that he was an Arab, other sources introduce him as Persian.
Science in medieval Islam, also known as Islamic science, is a term used in the history of science to refer to the science developed in the Islamic world prior to the modern era, particularly during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age (dated variously between the 7th and 15th centuries). Most texts during this period were written in Arabic, a lingua franca of this period; scientists within the Islamic civilization were of diverse ethnicity and diverse religious backgrounds.
Philosophical attempts to explain the nature of matter and its transformations failed. The protoscience of alchemy also failed, but by experimentation and recording the results set the stage for science. Modern chemistry begins to emerge when a clear distinction is made between chemistry and alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661).