The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors (the Bonapartes only), from the Middle Ages to 1870. There is some disagreement as to when France came into existence. One possible date would be the establishment of the Merovingian Frankish kingdom by Clovis I in 486 with the defeat of Syagrius, the last Roman official in Gaul. That kingdom's rulers were deposed in the 8th century. The Treaty of Verdun established the Kingdom of Western Francia in 843.
The 1848 Revolution in France was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France, the February revolution ended the Orleans monarchy (1830-1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. The June days were a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course. On December 2, 1848, Louis Napoleon was elected President of the Second Republic, largely on peasant support.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans), was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the ruling dynasty of France. He actively supported the French Revolution and adopted the name Philippe Égalité, but was nonetheless guillotined during the Reign of Terror. His son Louis-Philippe became King of the French after the July Revolution of 1830.
The July Monarchy, officially the Kingdom of the French, was a period of liberal constitutional monarchy in France under King Louis-Philippe starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X and his senior line of the House of Bourbon.
Duke of Orléans was one of the highest ranking titles of the French peerage and dates back to the 14th century. Known as princes of the blood (princes du sang), the title of Duke of Orleans was exclusive to princes of the nearest collateral line of the royal family; thus they constituted a junior branch of the ruling house, second in seniority only to members of the primary line. During the period of the ancien régime the holder of the title often assumed a political role.